Basic Fantasy Role-Playing Game

Copyright © 2006-2016 Chris Gonnerman – All Rights Reserved

Distributed under the terms of the Open Game License version 1.0a

3rd Edition

(Release 107)

Dedicated to Gary Gygax, Dave Arneson, Tom Moldvay, David Cook, and Steve Marsh

and to my daughter Taylor, my first and best inspiration

www.basicfantasy.org

Credits

Contributors: Contributors:Ray Allen, William D. Smith, Jr., Nick Bogan, Evan Moore, Stuart Marshall, Emiliano Marchetti, Antonio Eleuteri, Luigi Castellani, Michael Hensley, Nazim N. Karaca, Arthur Reyes, Todd Roe, Jim Bobb, R. Kevin Smoot, Rachel Ghoul, and Tom Hoyt
Cover Art: Erik Wilson
Artwork: Artwork:Erik Wilson, Steve Zieser, Matt Finch, Dan Dalton, Luigi Castellani, Nick Bogan, Mike Hill, Kevin Cook, Sean Stone, Brian “Glad” Thomas, Tomas Arfert, Andy “ATOM” Taylor, Jason Braun, Martin “Wulfgarn” Siesto, Brian DeClercq, Martin Serena, Cory "Shonuff" Gelnett, and Alexander Cook
Proofreading: Proofreading:Tonya Allen, Daryl Burns, James Roberts, Serge Petitclerc, Benedict Wolf, Onno Tasler, Peter Cook, Derrick "Omote" Landwehr, Wes Brown, Troy Gravil, Garrett Rooney, K. David Ladage, James Lemon, Martin Serena, Joe Carruthers, Jonathan Nichol, and Alister Fa
Playtesters: Playtesters:Taylor Gonnerman, Alan Jett, Mike Brantner, Steve Zieser, Allan Zieser, Jonathon Foster, Adam Young, Michael Young, Jason Schmidt, Doug Wilson, Jessica Abramson, Tonya Allen, Bryan Christian, Chuck Schoonover, Natalie Schoonover, Brianna Schoonover, Jason Brentlinger, Chris Wolfmeyer, Josh Eaton, Audra Brentlinger, Tim McAfee, and Ike Borden

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 1: INTRODUCTION

It was our third foray into the dungeons beneath the ancient fortress in the middle of the river. We were on the second level down from the ruins, standing before the great bronze doors beyond which we believed lay the tomb of an ancient barbarian chieftain. I hadn't believed the tales of the old drunk at the tavern back at Morgansfort, but for some reason Apoqulis the Cleric believed him. Turned out his stories were true… mostly, anyway.

I held a torch for Barthal the Thief as he tried briefly to pick the lock. He turned around and said, “It must be held by magic. The lock won't even wiggle.”

Morningstar the Elf smiled. “I have just the thing,” she said, drawing from her backpack the scroll we took from the goblins. She unrolled it and began to read, and though I couldn't understand her words I could see the characters burning away as she read them, little wisps of smoke as from a candle rising up from each in turn. Seeing that she was nearly through, I turned my attention to the lock. I'm not sure what I was expecting, but the little puff of dust that came from it as she finished didn't seem like much. She turned to Barthal and said, “Try again.”

I'm tempted to say that Barthal bent to his work, but he's a Halfling; at just over three feet tall he could look straight into the lock without stooping a bit. I must have looked impatient, as Apoqulis leaned over to me and said, “Be still, Darion, he'll be through in a moment or two.”

Then I heard a loud click, and Barthal turned to me with a smile. “It's open, my friend. After you!” I handed him the torch, then stepped to the doors, sword drawn, and Morningstar joined me, likewise ready. I steeled myself and opened the doors…

Beyond lay a stone sarcophagus, resting atop a raised platform. Strewn about the floor were many human skeletons. Apoqulis made a sign with his hand that I didn't recognize; then we walked in carefully, trying not to trip over the bones. I noticed among the bones several bronze swords, covered in verdigris. I stepped to the sarcophagus. “The lid is likely very heavy,” I said. “Come, Morningstar, rather than lift it, let's turn it about so we can see what treasures lie inside.”

Morningstar called “Wait!” but it was too late… I had already laid hands upon the sarcophagus. The bones on the floor began to rattle, then rose up and assembled themselves in a mockery of life. Without delay they picked up their swords from the floor and began to attack us. I would have to wait until later to kick myself, I mused, as I put my back against the sarcophagus and began to fight the monsters…

What Is This?

The Basic Fantasy Role-Playing Game is a rules-light game system based on the d20 SRD v3.5, but heavily rewritten with inspiration from early role-playing game systems. It is intended for those who are fans of “old-school” game mechanics. Basic Fantasy RPG is simple enough for children in perhaps second or third grade to play, yet still has enough depth for adults as well.

What Is a Role-Playing Game?

In the more than 30 years since the first role-playing game appeared, much has changed. Most people have at least heard the names of one or two such games, and many, many people have played. Still, there are those who have not tried RPGs; if you are one of those people, this part is for you.

Role-playing games are played by a number of players, commonly two to eight, and a Game Master, or GM (often called something else, but the job remains the same regardless of the title). Each player generally plays one character, called a player character or PC, while the Game Master is responsible for running the world, creating and managing the towns, nations, ruins, non-player characters (or NPCs), monsters, treasure, and all other things that aid or challenge the players. Dice are often used to determine the success or failure of most actions that take place in the game; Basic Fantasy RPG uses polyhedral dice, described below, for this purpose.

In effect, role-playing games are just grown-up games of pretend. If you remember playing pretend as a child, you may recall having some difficulty deciding whose idea should have precedence… if one child plays a knight and the other a dragon, who will win? Surely the knight doesn't win every time. Role-playing games have rules to determine such things. These rules can range from the very free-form and simple to the very complex and detailed.

This game attempts to walk the line between simple and complex, free-form and detailed. Too much detail and complexity slows the game down as players and GM spend much time leafing through the rules and little time actually playing. Free-form games with simple resolution systems demand more mental agility from the participants, and are much more dependent on the good judgment of the Game Master to maintain balance. Basic Fantasy Role-Playing Game falls between these two extremes, having rules for the most common activities and guidelines to help the Game Master judge the unexpected.

What Do I Need to Play?

If you are to be a player, you should have a pencil, some notebook paper, and a set of dice. Someone in your player group probably needs to have some graph paper (4 or 5 squares per inch is best) for drawing maps. You can use preprinted character sheets (such as those available on the Basic Fantasy RPG website) if you wish, but notebook paper works fine.

If you are the Game Master, you need all of the above. If this is your first time as GM, or you have limited preparation time, you might wish to use a pre-written adventure (called a module) rather than to create one yourself. Several modules are distributed on the basicfantasy.org website; the Morgansfort module, available for free on the website, is specifically designed for use with a party of new players. Adventure modules written for other game systems may also be used, but the Game Master may need to spend some time “converting” such a module before beginning play.

Using the Dice

The 20 sided die, or d20, is one of the most important dice in the game: it is used to resolve attack rolls and saving throws (concepts that will be explained later). In general, the die is rolled, modifiers added or subtracted, and if the total result equals or exceeds a target number, the roll is a success; otherwise it has failed.

The 10 sided die, or d10, is used to generate numbers from 1 to 10; it is numbered 0 to 9, but a roll of 0 is counted as 10. A pair of d10's are also used together to generate numbers from 1 to 100, where a roll of 00 is counted as 100. The two dice should be different colors, and the player must declare which is the tens die and which is the ones die before rolling them! (Or, the player may have a die marked with double digits, as shown.) Rolling two d10's this way is called a percentile roll, or d%. These rolls are generally against target numbers, but for the roll to be a success, the result must be equal to or less than the target number. So for example, a character using a Thief ability (described later) with a 30% chance of success rolls the dice: if the result is 01 to 30, the roll is a success.

The 4 sided die, or d4, is a special case. It is not so much rolled as “flipped,” and the number which is upright is the result of the roll. Note that d4's are made in two different styles, as shown; regardless of which style you have, the number rolled is the one which is upright on all visible sides.

The other dice normally used have 6, 8, and 12 sides, and are called d6, d8, and d12. d6's may be made with either numbers or pips; it makes no difference which sort you choose.

When multiple dice are to be rolled and added together, it's noted in the text like this: 2d6 (roll two d6 dice and add them together), or 3d4 (roll three d4 dice and add them together). A modifier may be noted as a “plus” value, such as 2d8+2 (roll two d8 dice and add them together, then add 2 to the total).

PART 2: PLAYER CHARACTERS

How to Create a Player Character

First, you will need a piece of paper to write down the character's statistics on. You may use a preprinted character sheet if one is available, or you may simply use a piece of notebook paper. An example character is shown below. You should use a pencil to write down all information, as any statistic may change during play.

Roll 3d6 for each ability score, as described in the Character Abilities section, and write the results after the names of the abilities. Write down the scores in the order you roll them; if you are unhappy with the scores you have rolled, ask your Game Master for advice, as he or she may allow some form of point or score exchanging.

Write down the ability score bonus (or penalty) for each score beside the score itself, as shown on the table on the next page.

Choose a race and class for your character. Your character must meet the Prime Requisite minimum for a class, as described in the Character Classes section, in order to be a member of that class. Also note that there are minimum (and maximum) ability requirements for the various races which must be met, as described in the Character Races section.

Write down the special abilities of your race and class choices, as described below. If you have chosen to play a Magic-User, ask your Game Master what spell or spells your character knows; it's up to the Game Master to decide this, but he or she may allow you to choose one or more spells yourself.

Note on your character sheet that your character has zero (0) experience points (or XP); also you may want to note the number needed to advance to second level, as shown in the table for your class.

Roll the hit die appropriate for your class, adding your Constitution bonus or penalty, and note the result as your hit points on your character sheet. Note that, should your character have a Constitution penalty, the penalty will not lower any hit die roll below 1 (so if your Character has a -2 penalty for Constitution, and you roll a 2, the total is adjusted to 1).

Roll for your starting money. Generally your character will start with 3d6 times 10 gold pieces, but ask the Game Master before rolling.

Now, purchase equipment for your character, as shown in the Cost of Weapons and Equipment section, below. Write your purchases on your character sheet, and note how much money remains afterward. Make sure you understand the weapon and armor restrictions for your class and race before making your purchases.

Since you now know what sort of armor your character is wearing, you should note your Armor Class on your character sheet. Don't forget to add your Dexterity bonus or penalty to the figure.

Look up your character's attack bonus (from the table in the Encounter section) and note it on your character sheet. Don't add your ability bonuses (or penalties) to this figure, as you will add a different bonus (Strength or Dexterity) depending on the sort of weapon you use in combat (i.e. melee or missile weapon).

Also look up your saving throws (from the tables near the end of the Encounter section) and note them on your character sheet. Adjust the saving throw figures based on your race, if your character is a demi-human (see Character Races, below). Please note that the saving throw bonuses for demi-humans are presented as "plus" values, to be added to the die roll; for convenience, you may simply subtract them from the saving throw numbers on the character sheet instead.

Finally, if you haven't done so already, name your character. This often takes longer than all the other steps combined.

Character Abilities

Each character will have a score ranging from 3 to 18 in each of the following abilities. A bonus or penalty is associated with each score, as shown on the table below. Each class has a Prime Requisite ability score, which must be at least 9 in order for the character to become a member of that class; also, there are required minimum and maximum scores for each character race other than Humans, as described under Character Races, below.

Ability Score Bonus/Penalty
3 -3
4-5 -2
6-8 -1
9-12 0
13-15 +1
16-17 +2
18 +3

Strength: As the name implies, this ability measures the character's raw physical power. Strength is the Prime Requisite for Fighters. Apply the ability bonus or penalty for Strength to all attack and damage rolls in melee (hand to hand) combat. Note that a penalty here will not reduce damage from a successful attack below one point in any case (see the Combat section for details).

Intelligence: This is the ability to learn and apply knowledge. Intelligence is the Prime Requisite for Magic-Users. The ability bonus for Intelligence is added to the number of languages the character is able to learn to read and write; if the character has an Intelligence penalty, he or she cannot read more than a word or two, and will only know his or her native language.

Wisdom: A combination of intuition, willpower and common sense. Wisdom is the Prime Requisite for Clerics. The Wisdom bonus or penalty may apply to some saving throws vs. magical attacks, particularly those affecting the target's will.

Dexterity: This ability measures the character's quickness and balance as well as aptitude with tools. Dexterity is the Prime Requisite for Thieves. The Dexterity bonus or penalty is applied to all attack rolls with missile (ranged) weapons, to the character's Armor Class value, and to the character's Initiative die roll.

Constitution: A combination of general health and vitality. Apply the Constitution bonus or penalty to each hit die rolled by the character. Note that a penalty here will not reduce any hit die roll to less than 1 point.

Charisma: This is the ability to influence or even lead people; those with high Charisma are well-liked, or at least highly respected. Apply the Charisma bonus or penalty to reaction rolls. Also, the number of retainers a character may hire, and the loyalty of those retainers, is affected by Charisma.

Hit Points and Hit Dice

When a character is injured, he or she loses hit points from his or her current total. Note that this does not change the figure rolled, but rather reduces the current total; healing will restore hit points, up to but not exceeding the rolled figure.

When his or her hit point total reaches 0, your character may be dead. This may not be the end for the character; don't tear up the character sheet.

First level characters begin play with a single hit die of the given type, plus the Constitution bonus or penalty, with a minimum of 1 hit point. Each time a character gains a level, the player should roll another hit die and add the character's Constitution bonus or penalty, with the result again being a minimum of 1 point. Add this amount to the character's maximum hit points figure. Note that, after 9th level, characters receive a fixed number of hit points each level, as shown in the advancement table for the class, and no longer add the Constitution bonus or penalty.

Languages

All characters begin the game knowing their native language. In most campaign worlds, Humans all (or nearly all) speak the same language, often called “Common.” Each demi-human race has its own language, i.e. Elvish, Dwarvish, or Halfling, and members of the demi-human races begin play knowing both their own language and Common (or the local Human language if it isn't called Common).

Characters with Intelligence of 13 or higher may choose to begin the game knowing one or more languages other than those given above; the number of additional languages that may be learned is equal to the Intelligence bonus (+1, +2, or +3). Characters may choose to learn other demi-human languages, as well as humanoid languages such as Orc, Goblin, etc. The GM will decide which humanoid languages may be learned. The player may choose to leave one or more bonus language “slots” open, to be filled during play. Some Game Masters may even allow player characters to learn exotic languages such as Dragon; also, “dead” or otherwise archaic languages might be allowed to more scholarly characters.

Character Races

Dwarves

Description: Dwarves are a short, stocky race; both male and female Dwarves stand around four feet tall and typically weigh around 120 pounds. Their long hair and thick beards are dark brown, gray or black. They take great pride in their beards, sometimes braiding or forking them. They have a fair to ruddy complexion. Dwarves have stout frames and a strong, muscular build. They are rugged and resilient, with the capacity to endure great hardships. Dwarves are typically practical, stubborn and courageous. They can also be introspective, suspicious and possessive. They have a lifespan of three to four centuries.

Restrictions: Dwarves may become Clerics, Fighters, or Thieves. They are required to have a minimum Constitution of 9. Due to their generally dour dispositions, they may not have a Charisma higher than 17. They may not employ Large weapons more than four feet in length (specifically, two-handed swords, polearms, and longbows).

Special Abilities: All Dwarves have Darkvision with a 60' range, and are able to detect slanting passages, traps, shifting walls and new construction on a roll of 1-2 on 1d6; a search must be performed before this roll may be made.

Saving Throws: Dwarves save at +4 vs. Death Ray or Poison, Magic Wands, Paralysis or Petrify, and Spells, and at +3 vs. Dragon Breath.

Elves

Description:Elves are a slender race, with both genders standing around five feet tall and weighing around 130 pounds. Most have dark hair, with little or no body or facial hair. Their skin is pale, and they have pointed ears and delicate features. Elves are lithe and graceful. They have keen eyesight and hearing. Elves are typically inquisitive, passionate, self-assured, and sometimes haughty. Their typical lifespan is a dozen centuries or more.

Restrictions: Elves may become Clerics, Fighters, Magic-Users or Thieves; they are also allowed to combine the classes of Fighter and Magic-User, and of Magic-User and Thief (see Combination Classes, below). They are required to have a minimum Intelligence of 9. Due to their generally delicate nature, they may not have a Constitution higher than 17. Elves never roll larger than six-sided dice (d6) for hit points.

Special Abilities: All Elves have Darkvision with a 60' range. They are able to find secret doors more often than normal (1-2 on 1d6 rather than the usual 1 on 1d6). An Elf is so observant that one has a 1 on 1d6 chance to find a secret door with a cursory look. Elves are immune to the paralyzing attack of ghouls. Also, they are less likely to be surprised in combat, reducing the chance of surprise by 1 in 1d6.

Saving Throws: Elves save at +1 vs. Paralysis or Petrify, and +2 vs. Magic Wands and Spells.

Halflings

Description: Halflings are small, slightly stocky folk who stand around three feet tall and weigh about 60 pounds. They have curly brown hair on their heads and feet, but rarely have facial hair. They are usually fair skinned, often with ruddy cheeks. Halflings are remarkably rugged for their small size. They are dexterous and nimble, capable of moving quietly and remaining very still. They usually go barefoot. Halflings are typically outgoing, unassuming and good-natured. They live about a hundred years.

Restrictions: Halflings may become Clerics, Fighters or Thieves. They are required to have a minimum Dexterity of 9. Due to their small stature, they may not have a Strength higher than 17. Halflings never roll larger than six-sided dice (d6) for hit points regardless of class. Halflings may not use Large weapons, and must wield Medium weapons with both hands.

Special Abilities: Halflings are unusually accurate with all sorts of ranged weapons, gaining a +1 attack bonus when employing them. When attacked in melee by creatures larger than man-sized, Halflings gain a +2 bonus to their Armor Class. Halflings are quick-witted, thus adding +1 to Initiative die rolls. Outdoors in their preferred forest terrain, they are able to hide very effectively; so long as they remain still there is only a 10% chance they will be detected. Even indoors, in dungeons or in non-preferred terrain they are able to hide such that there is only a 30% chance of detection. Note that a Halfling Thief will roll only once, using either the Thief ability or the Halfling ability, whichever is better.

Saving Throws: Halflings save at +4 vs. Death Ray or Poison, Magic Wands, Paralysis or Petrify, and Spells, and at +3 vs. Dragon Breath.

Humans

Description: Humans come in a broad variety of shapes and sizes; the Game Master must decide what sorts of Humans live in the game world. An average Human male in good health stands around six feet tall and weighs about 175 pounds. Most Humans live around 75 years.

Restrictions: Humans may be any single class. They have no minimum or maximum ability score requirements.

Special Abilities: Humans learn unusually quickly, gaining a bonus of 10% to all experience points earned.

Saving Throws: Humans are the “standard,” and thus have no saving throw bonuses.

Combination Classes

To become a member of a combination class, a character must meet the requirements of both classes. Combination class characters use the best attack bonus and the best saving throw values of their original two classes, but must gain experience equal to the combined requirements of both base classes to advance in levels. Elves are the only characters eligible to be a member of one of these combination classes:

Fighter/Magic-User: These characters may both fight and cast magic spells; further, they are allowed to cast magic spells while wearing armor. These characters roll six-sided dice (d6) for hit points.

Magic-User/Thief: Members of this combination class may cast spells while wearing leather armor, and may use any weapon. These characters roll four-sided dice (d4) for hit points.

Character Classes

Cleric

Exp. Spells
Level Points Hit Dice 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 0 1d6 - - - - - -
2 1,500 2d6 1 - - - - -
3 3,000 3d6 2 - - - - -
4 6,000 4d6 2 1 - - - -
5 12,000 5d6 2 2 - - - -
6 24,000 6d6 2 2 1 - - -
7 48,000 7d6 3 2 2 - - -
8 90,000 8d6 3 2 2 1 - -
9 180,000 9d6 3 3 2 2 - -
10 270,000 9d6+1 3 3 2 2 1 -
11 360,000 9d6+2 4 3 3 2 2 -
12 450,000 9d6+3 4 4 3 2 2 1
13 540,000 9d6+4 4 4 3 3 2 2
14 630,000 9d6+5 4 4 4 3 2 2
15 720,000 9d6+6 4 4 4 3 3 2
16 810,000 9d6+7 5 4 4 3 3 2
17 900,000 9d6+8 5 5 4 3 3 2
18 990,000 9d6+9 5 5 4 4 3 3
19 1,080,000 9d6+10 6 5 4 4 3 3
20 1,170,000 9d6+11 6 5 5 4 3 3

Clerics are those who have devoted themselves to the service of a deity, pantheon or other belief system. Most Clerics spend their time in mundane forms of service such as preaching and ministering in a temple; but there are those who are called to go abroad from the temple and serve their deity in a more direct way, smiting undead monsters and aiding in the battle against evil and chaos. Player character Clerics are assumed to be among the latter group.

Clerics fight about as well as Thieves, but not as well as Fighters. They are hardier than Thieves, at least at lower levels, as they are accustomed to physical labor that the Thief would deftly avoid. Clerics can cast spells of divine nature starting at 2nd level, and they have the power to Turn the Undead, that is, to drive away undead monsters by means of faith alone (see the Encounter section for details).

The Prime Requisite for Clerics is Wisdom; a character must have a Wisdom score of 9 or higher to become a Cleric. They may wear any armor, but may only use blunt weapons (specifically including warhammer, mace, maul, club, quarterstaff, and sling).

Fighter

Exp.
Level Points Hit Dice
1 0 1d8
2 2,000 2d8
3 4,000 3d8
4 8,000 4d8
5 16,000 5d8
6 32,000 6d8
7 64,000 7d8
8 120,000 8d8
9 240,000 9d8
10 360,000 9d8+2
11 480,000 9d8+4
12 600,000 9d8+6
13 720,000 9d8+8
14 840,000 9d8+10
15 960,000 9d8+12
16 1,080,000 9d8+14
17 1,200,000 9d8+16
18 1,320,000 9d8+18
19 1,440,000 9d8+20
20 1,560,000 9d8+22

Fighters include soldiers, guardsmen, barbarian warriors, and anyone else for whom fighting is a way of life. They train in combat, and they generally approach problems head on, weapon drawn.

Not surprisingly, Fighters are best at fighting of all the classes. They are also the hardiest, able to take more punishment than any other class. Although they are not skilled in the ways of magic, Fighters can nonetheless use many magic items, including but not limited to magical weapons and armor.

The Prime Requisite for Fighters is Strength; a character must have a Strength score of 9 or higher to become a Fighter. Members of this class may wear any armor and use any weapon.

Magic-User

Exp. Spells
Level Points Hit Dice 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 0 1d4 1 - - - - -
2 2,500 2d4 2 - - - - -
3 5,000 3d4 2 1 - - - -
4 10,000 4d4 2 2 - - - -
5 20,000 5d4 2 2 1 - - -
6 40,000 6d4 3 2 2 - - -
7 80,000 7d4 3 2 2 1 - -
8 150,000 8d4 3 3 2 2 - -
9 300,000 9d4 3 3 2 2 1 -
10 450,000 9d4+1 4 3 3 2 2 -
11 600,000 9d4+2 4 4 3 2 2 1
12 750,000 9d4+3 4 4 3 3 2 2
13 900,000 9d4+4 4 4 4 3 2 2
14 1,050,000 9d4+5 4 4 4 3 3 2
15 1,200,000 9d4+6 5 4 4 3 3 2
16 1,350,000 9d4+7 5 5 4 3 3 2
17 1,500,000 9d4+8 5 5 4 4 3 3
18 1,650,000 9d4+9 6 5 4 4 3 3
19 1,800,000 9d4+10 6 5 5 4 3 3
20 1,950,000 9d4+11 6 5 5 4 4 3

Magic-Users are those who seek and use knowledge of the arcane. They do magic not as the Cleric does, by faith in a greater power, but rather through insight and understanding.

Magic-Users are the worst of all the classes at fighting; hours spent studying massive tomes of magic do not lead a character to become strong or adept with weapons. They are the least hardy, equal to Thieves at lower levels but quickly falling behind.

The Prime Requisite for Magic-Users is Intelligence; a character must have an Intelligence score of 9 or higher to become a Magic-User. The only weapons they become proficient with are the dagger and the walking staff (or cudgel). Magic-Users may not wear armor of any sort nor use a shield as such things interfere with spellcasting.

A first level Magic-User begins play knowing read magic and one other spell of first level. These spells are written in a spellbook provided by his or her master. The GM may roll for the spell, assign it as he or she sees fit, or allow the player to choose it, at his or her option. See the Spells section for more details.

Thief

Exp.
Level Points Hit Dice
1 0 1d4
2 1,250 2d4
3 2,500 3d4
4 5,000 4d4
5 10,000 5d4
6 20,000 6d4
7 40,000 7d4
8 75,000 8d4
9 150,000 9d4
10 225,000 9d4+2
11 300,000 9d4+4
12 375,000 9d4+6
13 450,000 9d4+8
14 525,000 9d4+10
15 600,000 9d4+12
16 675,000 9d4+14
17 750,000 9d4+16
18 825,000 9d4+18
19 900,000 9d4+20
20 975,000 9d4+22

Thieves are those who take what they want or need by stealth, disarming traps and picking locks to get to the gold they crave; or “borrowing” money from pockets, beltpouches, etc. right under the nose of the “mark” without the victim ever knowing.

Thieves fight better than Magic-Users but not as well as Fighters. Avoidance of honest work leads Thieves to be less hardy than the other classes, though they do pull ahead of the Magic-Users at higher levels.

The Prime Requisite for Thieves is Dexterity; a character must have a Dexterity score of 9 or higher to become a Thief. They may use any weapon, but may not wear metal armor as it interferes with stealthy activities, nor may they use shields of any sort. Leather armor is acceptable, however.

Thieves have a number of special abilities, described below. One Turn must generally be spent to use any of these abilities, though the GM may amend this as he or she sees fit. The GM may choose to make any of these rolls on behalf of the player, at his or her option, to help maintain the proper state of uncertainty. Also note that the GM may apply situational adjustments (plus or minus percentage points) as he or she sees fit; for instance, it's obviously harder to climb a wall slick with slime than one that is dry, so the GM might apply a penalty of 20% for the slimy wall.

Thief Abilities

Thief Level Open Locks Remove Traps Pick Pockets Move Silently Climb Walls Hide Listen
1 25 20 30 25 80 10 30
2 30 25 35 30 81 15 34
3 35 30 40 35 82 20 38
4 40 35 45 40 83 25 42
5 45 40 50 45 84 30 46
6 50 45 55 50 85 35 50
7 55 50 60 55 86 40 54
8 60 55 65 60 87 45 58
9 65 60 70 65 88 50 62
10 68 63 74 68 89 53 65
11 71 66 78 71 90 56 68
12 74 69 82 74 91 59 71
13 77 72 86 77 92 62 74
14 80 75 90 80 93 65 77
15 83 78 94 83 94 68 80
16 84 79 95 85 95 69 83
17 85 80 96 87 96 70 86
18 86 81 97 89 97 71 89
19 87 82 98 91 98 72 92
20 88 83 99 93 99 73 95

Open Locks allows the Thief to unlock a lock without a proper key. It may only be tried once per lock. If the attempt fails, the Thief must wait until he or she has gained another level of experience before trying again.

Remove Traps is generally rolled twice: first to detect the trap, and second to disarm it. The GM will make these rolls as the player won't know for sure if the character is successful or not until someone actually tests the trapped (or suspected) area.

Pick Pockets allows the Thief to lift the wallet, cut the purse, etc. of a victim without the victim noticing. Obviously, if the roll is failed, the Thief didn't get what he or she wanted; but further, the intended victim (or an onlooker, at the GM's option) will notice the attempt if the die roll is more than two times the target number (or if the die roll is 00).

Move Silently, like Remove Traps, is always rolled by the GM. The Thief will usually believe he or she is moving silently regardless of the die roll, but those he or she is trying to avoid will hear the Thief if the roll is failed.

Climb Walls permits the Thief to climb sheer surfaces with few or no visible handholds. This ability should normally be rolled by the player. If the roll fails, the Thief falls from about halfway up the wall or other vertical surface. The GM may require multiple rolls if the distance climbed is more than 100 feet.

Hide permits the Thief to hide in any shadowed area large enough to contain his or her body. Like Move Silently, the Thief always believes he or she is being successful, so the GM makes the roll. A Thief hiding in shadows must remain still for this ability to work.

Listen is generally used to listen at a door, or to try to listen for distant sounds in a dungeon. The GM must decide what noises the Thief might hear; a successful roll means only that a noise could have been heard. The GM should always make this roll for the player. Note that the Thief and his or her party must try to be quiet in order for the Thief to use this ability.

Finally, Thieves can perform a Sneak Attack any time they are behind an opponent in melee and it is reasonably likely the opponent doesn't know the Thief is there. The GM may require a Move Silently or Hide roll to determine this. The Sneak Attack is made with a +4 attack bonus and does double damage if it is successful. A Thief usually can't make a Sneak Attack on the same opponent twice in any given combat.

The Sneak Attack can be performed with any melee (but not missile) weapon, or may be performed bare-handed (in which case subduing damage is done; see the Encounter section for details). Also, the Sneak Attack can be performed with the “flat of the blade;” the bonuses and penalties cancel out, so the attack has a +0 attack bonus and does normal damage; the damage done in this case is subduing damage.

Cost of Weapons and Equipment

Money

Monetary values are usually expressed in gold pieces. In addition to gold coins, there are coins made of platinum, silver, electrum (an alloy of gold and silver), and copper. They are valued as follows:

1 platinum piece (pp)= 5 gold pieces (gp)

1 gold piece (gp)= 10 silver pieces (sp)

1 electrum piece (ep)= 5 silver pieces (sp)

1 silver piece (sp)= 10 copper pieces (cp)

For game purposes, assume that one gold piece weighs 1/10th of a pound, and that five coins will “fit” in a cubic inch of storage space (this isn't literally accurate, but works well enough when applied to a box or chest).

First level characters generally begin the game with 3d6 x 10 gp (unless the GM decides otherwise).

Equipment

This list represents common adventuring equipment at average prices. Prices and availability may vary. Weights are expressed in pounds. Items marked * weigh very little; ten such items weigh one pound. Items marked ** have almost no weight and should not usually be counted.

Item Price Weight
Backpack 4 gp *
Belt Pouch 1 gp *
Bit and bridle 15 sp 3
Candles, 12 1 gp *
Chalk, small bag of pieces 2 gp *
Cloak 2 gp 1
Clothing, common outfit 4 gp 1
Glass bottle or vial 1 gp *
Grappling Hook 2 gp 4
Holy Symbol 25 gp *
Holy Water, per vial 10 gp *
Horseshoes & shoeing 1 gp 10
Ink, per jar 8 gp ½
Iron Spikes, 12 1 gp 1
Ladder, 10 ft. 1 gp 20
Lantern 5 gp 2
Lantern, Bullseye 14 gp 3
Lantern, Hooded 8 gp 2
Manacles (without padlock) 6 gp 4
Map or scroll case 1 gp ½
Mirror, small metal 7 gp *
Oil (per flask) 1 gp 1
Padlock (with 2 keys) 12 gp 1
Item Price Weight
Paper (per sheet) 1 gp **
Pole, 10' wooden 1 gp 10
Quill 1 sp **
Quill Knife 1 gp *
Quiver or Bolt case 1 gp 1
Rations, Dry, one week 10 gp 14
Rope, Hemp (per 50 ft.) 1 gp 5
Rope, Silk (per 50 ft.) 10 gp 2
Sack, Large 1 gp *
Sack, Small 5 sp *
Saddle, Pack 5 gp 15
Saddle, Riding 10 gp 35
Saddlebags, pair 4 gp 7
Spellbook (128 pages) 25 gp 1
Tent, Large (ten men) 25 gp 20
Tent, Small (one man) 5 gp 10
Thieves' picks and tools 25 gp 1
Tinderbox, flint and steel 3 gp 1
Torches, 6 1 gp 1
Whetstone 1 gp 1
Whistle 1 gp **
Wineskin/Waterskin 1 gp 2
Winter blanket 1 gp 3

Weapons

Weapon Price Size Weight Dmg.
Axes
Hand Axe 4 gp S 5 1d6
Battle Axe 7 gp M 7 1d8
Great Axe 14 gp L 15 1d10
Bows
Shortbow 25 gp M 2
Shortbow Arrow 1 sp * 1d6
Silver† Shortbow Arrow 2 gp * 1d6
Longbow 60 gp L 3
Longbow Arrow 2 sp * 1d8
Silver† Longbow Arrow 4 gp * 1d8
Light Crossbow 30 gp M 7
Light Quarrel 2 sp * 1d6
Silver† Light Quarrel 5 gp * 1d6
Heavy Crossbow 50 gp L 14
Heavy Quarrel 4 sp * 1d8
Silver† Heavy Quarrel 10 gp * 1d8
Daggers
Dagger 2 gp S 1 1d4
Silver† Dagger 25 gp S 1 1d4
Swords
Shortsword 6 gp S 3 1d6
Longsword/Scimitar 10 gp M 4 1d8
Two-Handed Sword 18 gp L 10 1d10
Hammers and Maces
Warhammer 4 gp S 6 1d6
Mace 6 gp M 10 1d8
Maul 10 gp L 16 1d10
Other Weapons
Club/Cudgel/Walking Staff 2 sp M 1 1d4
Quarterstaff 2 gp L 4 1d6
Pole Arm 9 gp L 15 1d10
Sling 1 gp S *
Bullet 1 sp * 1d4
Stone n/a * 1d3
Spear 5 gp M 5
Thrown (one handed) 1d6
Melee (one handed) 1d6
Melee (two handed) 1d8

* These items weigh little individually. Ten of these items weigh one pound.

† Silver tip or blade, for use against lycanthropes.

Weapon Size

Humans and Elves must wield Large weapons with both hands, but may use Small or Medium weapons in one hand. Halflings may not use Large weapons at all, and must use Medium weapons with both hands. Dwarves, due to their stocky, powerful builds, are able to use Medium weapons one-handed and some Large weapons in two hands, but Large weapons more than four feet in length are prohibited (specifically, two-handed swords, polearms, and longbows). Some weapons must be used with both hands by design (such as bows and crossbows) but the maximum size limits still apply.

The GM should apply similar limitations to weapon-armed monsters; for instance, kobolds and goblins are similar in size to Halflings, and thus should have similar weapon limits.

Missile Weapon Ranges

Weapon Short (+1) Medium (0) Long (-2)
Longbow 70 140 210
Shortbow 50 100 150
Heavy Crossbow 80 160 240
Light Crossbow 60 120 180
Dagger 10 20 30
Hand Axe 10 20 30
Oil or Holy Water 10 30 50
Sling 30 60 90
Spear 10 20 30
Warhammer 10 20 30

Missile weapon ranges are given in feet. In the wilderness, substitute yards for feet. If the target is as close as or closer than the Short range figure, the attacker receives a +1 attack bonus. If the target is further away than the Medium range figure, but not beyond the Long range figure, the attacker receives a -2 attack penalty.

Armor and Shields

Armor Type Price Weight AC
No Armor 0 gp 0 11
Leather Armor 20 gp 15 13
Chain Mail 60 gp 40 15
Plate Mail 300 gp 50 17
Shield 7 gp 5 +1

Beasts of Burden

Note: Statistics for the animals below are on page 55.

Item Price
Horse, Draft 120 gp
Horse, War 200 gp
Horse, Riding 75 gp
Pony* 40 gp
Pony, War* 80 gp

*Due to their small stature, Dwarves and Halflings generally ride ponies rather than horses.

Explanation of Equipment

A Backpackwill hold a maximum 40 pounds or 3 cubic feet of goods. Some items may be lashed to the outside, and thus count toward the weight limit but not the volume limit. A Halfling's backpack holds at most 30 pounds and/or 1½ cubic feet, but costs the same as a full-sized item.

A Candle will shed light over a 5' radius, with dim light extending 5' further. A normal candle will burn about 3 turns per inch of height.

Chalk is useful for “blazing a trail” through a dungeon or ruin.

Holy Water is explained in the Encounter section.

Iron Spikes are useful for spiking doors closed (or spiking them open) and may be used as crude pitons in appropriate situations.

A Lantern will provide light covering a 30' radius; dim light will extend about 20' further. A lantern will consume a flask of oil in 18+1d6 turns. A Hooded Lantern allows the light to be hidden or revealed as the user pleases; in all other ways it performs as an ordinary lantern. A Bullseye Lantern projects a cone of light 30' long and 30' wide at the widest point, with dim light extending an additional 20' beyond that point. This type of lantern is generally hooded.

A Map or Scroll Case is a tubular oiled leather case used to carry maps, scrolls, or other paper items. The case will have a water-resistant (but not waterproof) cap which slides over the end, and a loop to allow the case to be hung from a belt or bandolier. A standard scroll case can hold up to 10 sheets of paper, or a single scroll of up to seven spells.

A Mirror is useful in a dungeon environment for many reasons; for instance, it is the only way to look at a Medusa without being turned to stone. Mirrors are also useful for looking around corners, and can be used outdoors to send signals using reflected sunlight.

A Quiver is an open container used to hold arrows. A Bolt Case is a similar sort of container for crossbow bolts. In either case, the standard capacity is 20 missiles. The length of a quiver or bolt case must match the length of the ammunition for it to be useful; therefore, there are longbow and shortbow quivers and light and heavy crossbow bolt cases. The price is the same for all types.

Dry Rations may consist of dry bread, hard cheese, dried fruit, nuts, beans, jerky, or any other food which will not “go bad” in less than about a month (if not longer). Dry rations are generally sold in quantities sufficient for one character for a week, and are packaged in waxed or oiled cloth to protect them.

Hemp Rope is ½ inch in diameter and has a breaking strength of 1,600 pounds. Safe working load for a rope is normally one-quarter of the breaking strength. One or more knots in a rope cut the breaking strength in half. This does not affect the safe working load, because knots are figured into the listed one-quarter ratio.

Silk Rope is about 3/8 inch in diameter and has a breaking strength of 1,600 pounds, although it weighs considerably less than hemp rope. The notes regarding rope strength given for hemp rope, above, apply here also.

A Large Sack will hold at most 40 pounds or 4 cubic feet of goods.

A Small Sack will hold at most 20 pounds or 2 cubic feet of goods.

A pair of Saddlebags will hold at most 10 pounds or 1 cubic foot of goods (divided evenly between both bags).

Thieves' Picks and Tools are required for the use of Thief abilities such as opening locks and removing traps. These abilities may not be usable without appropriate tools, or may be used at a penalty at the option of the Game Master.

A Tinderbox is generally purchased with a flint and steel; the flint, a piece of hard rock, is struck vigorously against a C-shaped piece of high-carbon steel. When done correctly, hot sparks will fly from the flint and steel into the tinder, hopefully starting a fire. The best tinder is a dried piece of prepared tinder fungus, carried in the tinderbox to keep it dry; char cloth, hemp rope, or even very dry grass can substitute if prepared tinder fungus is not available. The time required to start a fire should be determined by the GM according to the prevailing conditions; under ideal conditions, starting a fire with a flint, steel and tinder takes about a turn.

A Torch sheds light over a 30' radius, with dim light extending about 20' further, and burns for 1d4+4 turns. Of course, a torch is also useful for setting flammable materials (such as cobwebs or oil) alight.

A Whetstone is used to sharpen and maintain edged weapons such as swords, daggers, and axes.

Wineskin/Waterskin is a container for drinking water or wine; though generally water is taken into a dungeon or wilderness environment. The standard waterskin holds one quart of liquid, which is the minimum amount required by a normal character in a single day. If adventuring in the desert or other hot, dry areas, a character may need as much as ten times this amount. Note that the given 2 pound weight is for a full skin; an empty skin has negligible weight.

Vehicles

The following tables give details of various land and sea vehicles. Game Masters should feel free to create their own vehicles, in which case the table can be used for guidance. Some of the statistics given below are explained in detail later.

Land Transportation

Vehicle Length x width* Weight Cargo Movement Hardness / HP Cost (gp)
Chariot 15' x 6' 300 750 lbs 60' (10') 10 / 10 400
Coach 30' x 8' 1,000 2,000 lbs 40' (15') 6 / 12 1,500
Wagon 35' x 8' 2,000 4,000 lbs 20' (15') 6 / 16 500

*Includes hitched horses or mules.

Water Transportation

Vehicle Length x Width Cargo Crew Movement Miles/Day Hardness / HP Cost (gp)
Canoe 15' x 4' ½ ton 1 40' (5') 30 4 / 4 50
Caravel 55' x 15' 75 tons 10 20' (20') 42 8 / 75 10,000
Carrack 60' x 20' 135 tons 20 30' (30') 48 10 / 120 20,000
Galley, Small 100' x 15' 210 tons 90 20' (20') 36 / 24 8 / 75 15,000
Galley, Large 120' x 20' 375 tons 160 30' (25') 42 / 24 10 / 120 30,000
Longship 110' x 15' 10 tons 70 30' (25') 42 / 24 9 / 110 25,000
Raft/Barge per 10' x 10' 1 ton 2 40' (10') 18 6 / 12 100
Riverboat 50' x 20' 50 tons 10 20' (20') 30 8 / 30 3,500
Rowboat 15' x 6' 1 ton 1 30' (10') 24 6 / 8 60
Sailboat 40' x 8' 5 tons 1 40' (15') 36 7 / 20 2,000

Notes Regarding Vehicles

The Crew figure given reflects the minimum number of sailors and/or rowers needed to operate the ship. Officers are not counted among these numbers, and of course it is always a good idea to hire extra sailors and/or rowers to ensure that any casualties will not slow down the ship.

Cargo for wagons is given in pounds, while for ships it is given in tons. If the ship sails night and day, each passenger requires living space equivalent to one ton of cargo; in addition, provisions for one man for one month occupy 1/10 of a ton of space.

Movement is given separately here in feet (yards, actually; see Time and Scale in Part 4: The Adventure for an explanation) as well as miles per day. The encounter movement of ships is not directly related to the long-distance travel rate, since the crew must work hard to make the ship move quickly in combat, and this level of effort cannot be maintained day and night.

The parenthesized figure represents maneuverability; see Maneuverabilityin Part 5: The Encounter for details.

See Attacking a Vehicle, also in the Encounter section, for details on the Hardness and HP statistics.

A chariot requires a single horse, generally a warhorse, to pull it. Both coaches and wagons require at least a pair of draft horses to pull them.

A caravel is a highly maneuverable sailing ship with two or three masts. Though superficially similar to the larger carrack, caravels are capable of sailing up rivers, a task for which the larger ship is ill suited.

A carrack is a large, ocean-going sailing ship with three or four masts.

Galleys are equipped with both sails and oars; the second listed movement rate for galleys is the rowing speed. A small galley will have around 20 rows of oars, with each oar pulled by two men (for a total of 80 rowers) while a large galley will have around 35 rows of oars (for a total of 140 rowers). Galleys are generally much more maneuverable than sailing ships such as the carrack or caravel, and may be outfitted with rams.

The longship commonly used by northern raiders is very similar to the large galley. However, where more civilized nations have specialist rowers, sailors, and marines, the crew of a longship is more generalized; most crewmen will be qualified for all of these tasks.

Siege Engines

These are weapons used to attack strongholds, or sometimes ships. Their cost may be up to twice as high in a remote location. A siege engine that throws missiles (a ballista, onager or trebuchet) must have a trained artillerist to fire it; this is the character who makes the attack rolls for the weapon. Missile-throwing engines have attack penalties, detailed below. Note: siege engines are not generally usable against individuals or monsters; the GM may make exceptions for very large monsters like giants or dragons.

Weapon Cost Rate of Fire Attack Penalty Damage Short Range (+1) Medium Range (+0) Long Range (-2)
Ballista 100 gp 1/4 -3 2d8 50' 100' 150'
Battering Ram 200 gp 1/3 +0 2d8 N/A N/A N/A
Onager 300 gp 1/6 -6 2d12 100' 200' 300'
Trebuchet 400 gp 1/10 -8 3d10 N/A 300' 400'

Ballista: This is effectively a very large crossbow that may fire a spear-like bolt or a large stone. It is usually mounted on a tripod or wagon, but may also be mounted on a ship. When firing bolts, a ballista cannot damage brick or stone. A ballista requires a crew of three to operate.

Battering Ram: These are usually operated under a sow (a sort of portable roof). They require a crew of eight or more.

Onager: This weapon throws a stone with a fairly flat trajectory. An onager requires a crew of four to operate.

Trebuchet: This mighty weapon uses a counterweight to fling a stone on a high, arcing path. It cannot fire at targets within 200 yards. If it is aimed at a target that is more than 20’ higher than the weapon, there is an additional –2 attack penalty. A trebuchet requires a crew of eight to operate.

PART 3: SPELLS

The number of spells of each level which a Cleric or Magic-User may cast per day is shown on the appropriate table in the Characters section, above. Each day, usually in the morning, spellcasters prepare spells to replace those they have used. Clerics do this through prayer, while Magic-Users must study their spellbooks. Spells prepared but not used persist from day to day; only those actually cast must be replaced. A spellcaster may always choose to dismiss a prepared spell (without casting it) in order to prepare a different spell of that level.

Spellcasters must have at least one hand free, and be able to speak, in order to cast spells; thus, binding and gagging a spellcaster is an effective means of preventing him or her from casting spells. In combat, casting a spell usually takes the same time as making an attack. If a spellcaster is attacked (even if not hit) or must make a saving throw (whether successful or not) on the Initiative number on which he or she is casting a spell, the spell is spoiled and lost. As a specific exception, two spell casters releasing their spells at each other on the same Initiative number will both succeed in their casting; one caster may disrupt another with a spell only if he or she has a better Initiative, and chooses to delay casting the spell until right before the other caster.

Some spells are reversible; such spells are shown with an asterisk after the name.

Cleric Spells

Clerics receive their spells through faith and prayer. Each day, generally in the morning, a Cleric must pray for at least three turns in order to prepare spells. Of course, the Cleric may be expected to pray more than this in order to remain in his or her deity's good graces.

Because they gain their spells through prayer, a Cleric may prepare any spell of any level he or she is able to cast. However, in some cases the Cleric's deity may limit the availability of certain spells; for instance, a deity devoted to healing may refuse to grant reversed healing spells.

First Level Clerical Spells

1 Cure Light Wounds*
2 Detect Evil*
3 Detect Magic
4 Light*
5 Protection from Evil*
6 Purify Food and Water
7 Remove Fear*
8 Resist Cold

Second Level Clerical Spells

1 Bless*
2 Charm Animal
3 Find Traps
4 Hold Person
5 Resist Fire
6 Silence 15' radius
7 Speak with Animals
8 Spiritual Hammer

Third Level Clerical Spells

1 Continual Light*
2 Cure Blindness
3 Cure Disease*
4 Growth of Animals
5 Locate Object
6 Remove Curse*
7 Speak with Dead
8 Striking

Fourth Level Clerical Spells

1 Animate Dead
2 Create Water
3 Cure Serious Wounds*
4 Dispel Magic
5 Neutralize Poison*
6 Protection from Evil 10' radius*
7 Speak with Plants
8 Sticks to Snakes

Fifth Level Clerical Spells

1 Commune
2 Create Food
3 Dispel Evil
4 Insect Plague
5 Quest*
6 Raise Dead*
7 True Seeing
8 Wall of Fire

Sixth Level Clerical Spells

1 Animate Objects
2 Blade Barrier
3 Find the Path
4 Heal*
5 Regenerate
6 Restoration
7 Speak with Monsters
8 Word of Recall

Magic-User Spells

Magic-Users cast spells through the exercise of knowledge and will. They prepare spells by study of their spellbooks; each Magic-User has his or her own spellbook containing the magical formulae for each spell the Magic-User has learned. Spellbooks are written in a magical script that can only be read by the one who wrote it, or through the use of the spell read magic. All Magic-Users begin play knowing read magic, and it is so ingrained that it can be prepared without a spellbook.

A Magic-User may only prepare spells after resting (i.e. a good night's sleep), and needs one turn per each three spell levels to do so (rounding fractions up). Spells prepared but not used on a previous day are not lost. For example, a 3rd level Magic-User preparing all three of his or her available spells (two 1st level and one 2nd level) is preparing a total of 4 levels of spells, and thus needs 2 turns (4 divided by 3 and rounded up).

Rules for the acquisition of new spells are found in the Game Master's section on page 162.

First Level Magic-User Spells

1 Charm Person
2 Detect Magic
3 Floating Disc
4 Hold Portal
5 Light*
6 Magic Missile
7 Magic Mouth
8 Protection from Evil*
9 Read Languages
10 Shield
11 Sleep
12 Ventriloquism

Second Level Magic-User Spells

1 Continual Light*
2 Detect Evil*
3 Detect Invisible
4 ESP
5 Invisibility
6 Knock
7 Levitate
8 Locate Object
9 Mirror Image
10 Phantasmal Force
11 Web
12 Wizard Lock

Third Level Magic-User Spells

1 Clairvoyance
2 Darkvision
3 Dispel Magic
4 Fireball
5 Fly
6 Haste*
7 Hold Person
8 Invisibility 10‘ radius
9 Lightning Bolt
10 Protection from Evil 10’ radius*
11 Protection from Normal Missiles
12 Water Breathing

Fourth Level Magic-User Spells

1 Charm Monster
2 Confusion
3 Dimension Door
4 Growth of Plants*
5 Hallucinatory Terrain
6 Ice Storm
7 Massmorph
8 Polymorph Other
9 Polymorph Self
10 Remove Curse*
11 Wall of Fire
12 Wizard Eye

Fifth Level Magic-User Spells

1 Animate Dead
2 Cloudkill
3 Conjure Elemental
4 Feeblemind
5 Hold Monster
6 Magic Jar
7 Passwall
8 Telekinesis
9 Teleport
10 Wall of Stone

Sixth Level Magic-User Spells

1 Anti-Magic Shell
2 Death Spell
3 Disintegrate
4 Flesh to Stone*
5 Geas*
6 Invisible Stalker
7 Lower Water
8 Projected Image
9 Reincarnate
10 Wall of Iron

All Spells, in Alphabetical Order

Animate Dead

Range: touch

Cleric 4, Magic-User 5

Duration: special

This spell turns the bones or bodies of dead creatures into undead skeletons or zombies that follow the caster's spoken commands. They remain animated until they are destroyed. The caster may animate a number of hit dice of undead equal to twice his or her caster level, and no more. Animated skeletons have hit dice equal to the number the creature had in life; for skeletons of humans or demi-humans, this means one hit die, regardless of the character level of the deceased. Zombies have one more hit die than the creature had in life. An animated skeleton can be created only from a mostly intact skeleton; a zombie can be created only from a mostly intact corpse. The caster must touch the remains to be animated. No character may normally control more hit dice of undead than 4 times his or her level, regardless of how many times this spell is cast.

Animate Objects

Range: 100'+10'/level

Cleric 6

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell imbues inanimate objects with mobility and a semblance of life. The animated objects then attack whomever or whatever the caster designates. This spell cannot animate objects carried or worn by a creature. An animated object can be of any non-magical material. The caster can animate one object per level, up to a maximum of 25 lbs. per caster level (i.e. 300 lbs. at 12th level, 325 lbs. at 13th level, and so on).

The GM must rule on the effectiveness of animated objects in combat. In general, animated objects attack using the same attack bonus as the caster. Small or lightweight objects do no more than 1d4 damage per hit, while larger and/or heavier objects do 1d6 or 1d8 (at the GM's discretion). As a special case, weapons which are animated do damage using the normal die roll for the type, but only up to a maximum 1d8. Animated objects have a movement rate of 10', and generally must move in contact with the ground (walking, hopping, slithering, or bouncing, however seems most appropriate to the GM).

Anti-Magic Shell

Range: 10' radius

Magic User 6

Duration: 1 turn/level

Within a 10' radius around the caster, all magic is negated for the full duration of the spell. Magical attacks will not affect the caster, magic items and spells within the radius are suppressed, and the caster cannot perform further magic until the spell has expired.

Blade Barrier

Range: 90'

Cleric 6

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell creates a wall of whirling blades up to 20' long per caster level, or a ringed wall of whirling blades with a radius of up to 5' per two levels. Either form will be up to 20 ft. high (as allowed by available space). Any creature passing through the wall takes 1d6 points of damage per caster level (maximum 15d6), with a save vs. Death Ray reducing damage to half.

If the caster evokes the barrier so that it appears where creatures are, each creature takes damage as if passing through the wall. Each such creature can avoid the wall (ending up on the side of its choice) and thus take no damage by making a successful save vs. Death Ray.

A blade barrier provides cover (+4 bonus to Armor Class) against attacks made through it.

Bless*

Range: 50' radius

Cleric 2

Duration: 1 minute/level

This spell gives the caster and his or her allies (within a 50' radius of the caster) a bonus of +1 on attack rolls, morale checks (for monsters or NPCs allied with the caster), and saving throws against magical fear.

The reverse of bless is called bane. It fills the caster's enemies (within a 50' radius) with fear and doubt, causing each affected creature to suffer a –1 penalty on attack rolls, morale checks, and saving throws against magical fear.

Charm Animal

Range: 60'

Cleric 2

Duration: level+1d4 rounds

This spell allows the caster to charm one or more animals, in much the same fashion as charm person, at a rate of 1 hit die per caster level. The caster may decide which individual animals out of a mixed group are to be affected first; excess hit dice of effect are ignored. No saving throw is allowed, either for normal or giant-sized animals, but creatures of more fantastic nature (as determined by the GM) are allowed a save vs. Spells to resist. When the duration expires, the animals will resume normal activity immediately.

This spell does not grant the caster any special means of communication with the affected animals; if combined with speak with animals, this spell becomes significantly more useful.

Charm Monster

Range: 30'

Magic User 4

Duration: special

This spell functions like charm person, except that the effect is not restricted by creature type or size. Undead monsters are unaffected. This spell can affect 3d6 hit dice of creatures of 3 or fewer hit dice, or one creature of more than 3 hit dice. Saving throws are made just as for charm person.

Charm Person

Range: 30'

Magic User 1

Duration: special

This spell makes a humanoid creature of 4 hit dice or less regard the caster as its trusted friend and ally. Humans and demi-humans may be affected, regardless of level of ability. A save vs. Spells will negate the effect. If the creature is currently being threatened or attacked by the caster or his or her allies, it receives a +5 bonus on its saving throw. The spell does not enable the caster to control the charmed person as if it were an automaton; rather, it perceives his or her words and actions in the most favorable way. The caster can try to give the subject orders, but it will not do anything it wouldn’t ordinarily do, and further may receive an additional saving throw to overcome the magic (at the GM's discretion). The caster must speak the target's language to communicate any commands, or else be good at pantomiming; of course, if the caster is attacked, the charmed creature will act to protect its “friend” (though that could mean attacking the caster's enemies, or attempting to carry off the caster to a “safe” place). The target receives a new saving throw each day if it has an Intelligence of 13 or greater, every week if its Intelligence is 9-12, or every month if its Intelligence is 8 or less.

Clairvoyance

Range: 60'

Magic User 3

Duration: 12 turns

This spell enables the caster to see into another area through the eyes of a living creature in that area. The caster must specify the direction and approximate distance, up to a maximum of 60' away. If there is no appropriate creature in that area, the spell fails. No saving throw is allowed, and the target creature is unaware that it is being so used. The caster may choose another subject creature after at least a turn has passed, enabling multiple locations to be viewed. If the subject creature moves out of range, contact is lost, though the caster may be able to choose another target in this case.

Cloudkill

Range: 100'+10'/level

Magic User 5

Duration: 6 rounds/level

This spell creates a 20'x20'x20' cloud of poison gas which moves at a rate of 10' per round under the control of the caster (so long as he or she concentrates on it). The gas kills outright any creatures of 3 or fewer hit dice or levels it comes in contact with; creatures having 4 or more hit dice or levels must save vs. Poison or die. The cloud persists for the entire duration even if the caster ceases to concentrate upon it.

Commune

Range: self

Cleric 5

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell puts the caster in contact with his patron deity or an extraplanar servant thereof, who answers one yes-or-no question per caster level. The ritual to cast this spell takes 1 turn to complete. The being contacted may or may not be omniscient, and further, though the being is technically allied with the caster, it may still not answer questions clearly or completely. These details are left to the GM's discretion.

Confusion

Range: 360'

Magic User 4

Duration: 2 rounds+1/level

This spell causes up to 3d6 living creatures within a 30' radius circle around the target point to become confused,making them unable to independently determine what they will do. A saving throw vs. Spells is allowed to resist the effect. Roll on the following table on each subject’s Initiative number each round to see what the subject does.

d20 Behavior
1–2 Attack caster with melee or ranged weapons (or close with caster if attack is not possible).
3–4 Act normally.
5–10 Do nothing but babble incoherently.
11–14 Flee away from caster at top possible speed.
15–20 Attack nearest creature.

A confused character who can’t carry out the indicated action does nothing but babble incoherently. Attackers are not at any special advantage when attacking a confused character. Any confused character who is attacked automatically retaliates on its next turn, as long as it is still confused when its turn comes.

Conjure Elemental

Range: 240'

Magic User 5

Duration: special

A portal to one of the Elemental Planes of Air, Earth, Fire, or Water is opened, allowing the Magic-User to summon an elemental from that plane. At most one elemental of each type may be summoned by the caster in a given day. Once the elemental appears, it serves the conjurer indefinitely, provided the caster concentrates on nothing but controlling the creature; spell casting, combat, or movement over half the normal rate results in loss of concentration. The conjurer, while in control of an elemental, can dismiss it to its native plane at will (doing so on his or her Initiative if in combat). If the Magic-User loses concentration, control of the summoned Elemental is lost and cannot be regained. The creature then seeks to attack the conjurer and all others in its path. Only dispel magic or dispel evil will banish the elemental once control has been lost. An elemental may, of course, choose to return to its home plane on its own; such creatures will not choose to remain on the material plane for long.

Continual Light*

Range: 360'

Cleric 3, Magic-User 2

Duration: 1 year/level

This spell creates a spherical region of light, as bright as full daylight up to a 30' radius, with light of lesser intensity to a radius of 60'. Continual light can be cast on an object, into the air, or at a creature, just as with the light spell, up to a maximum range of 360' from the caster. The spell remains in effect for one year per level of the caster.

As with light, this spell can be used to blind a creature if cast on its visual organs. Creatures targeted by this spell are allowed a save vs. Death Ray; if the save is made, the spell is cast into the air just behind the target creature. A penalty of -4 is applied to the blinded creature's attack rolls if the saving throw fails.

The reversed spell, continual darkness, causes complete absence of light in the area of effect, overpowering normal light sources. Continual darkness may be used to blind in the same way as continual light.

Create Food

Range: 10'

Cleric 5

Duration: permanent

The food that this spell creates is simple fare of the caster's choice, highly nourishing, but rather bland. Up to 3 men or one horse per caster level can be fed for one day with this spell. Food so created decays and becomes inedible within 24 hours, although it can be kept fresh for another 24 hours by casting purify food and water on it.

Create Water

Range: 10'

Cleric 4

Duration: permanent

This spell creates one gallon of water per caster level. Note that one or more vessels to contain the water must be available at the time of casting. The water created by this spell is just like clean rain water. Note: Water weighs about 8 pounds per gallon, and one cubic foot of water is roughly 8 gallons.

Cure Blindness

Range: touch

Cleric 3

Duration: instantaneous

With this spell the caster can cure a creature suffering blindness (whether caused by injury or by magic, including light or continual light). Blindness caused by a curse cannot be cured by this spell.

Cure Disease*

Range: touch

Cleric 3

Duration: instantaneous

Cure disease cures all diseases that the subject is suffering from. The spell also kills parasites afflicting the target creature. Certain special diseases may not be countered by this spell or may be countered only by a caster of a certain level or higher.

Note: This spell does not prevent reinfection after a new exposure to the same disease.

Cure Light Wounds*

Cleric 1

Range: touch

Duration: instantaneous

With this spell the caster heals 1d6+1 hit points of damage by laying his or her hand upon the injured creature.

The reverse form of this spell, cause light wounds, causes 1d6+1 damage to the creature affected by it. A successful attack roll is required in this case.

Undead are affected by this spell and its reverse in opposite fashion; they are injured by cure light wounds and healed by cause light wounds.

Cure Serious Wounds*

Cleric 4

Range: touch

Duration: instantaneous

This spell works exactly like cure light wounds, save that it heals 2d6 points of damage, plus 1 point per caster level. The reverse, cause serious wounds, also works exactly like cause light wounds, except that it inflicts 2d6 + caster level in damage.

Darkvision

Range: touch

Magic User 3

Duration: 1 hour/level

The subject receives Darkvision with a range of 60' for the duration of the spell. (See page 37 for details.)

Death Spell

Range: 240'

Magic User 6

Duration: instantaneous

This spell will kill 3d12 hit dice or levels of creatures in a 30' radius sphere centered wherever the caster wishes (within the range limit). Excess levels of effectiveness are lost. Each creature affected is allowed to save vs. Death Ray; those that fail the save die immediately. Creatures of 8 or more hit dice or levels are immune to the spell, as are undead monsters, golems, and any other “creature” that is not truly alive.

Detect Evil*

Range: 60'

Cleric 1, Magic-User 2

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell allows the caster to detect evil; specifically, the caster can detect creatures with evil intentions, magic items with evil enchantments, and possibly extraplanar creatures of evil nature. Normal characters, even “bad” characters, cannot be detected by this spell, as only overwhelming evil is detectable. The caster sees the “evil” creatures or objects with a definite glow around them, but the glow cannot be seen by anyone else.

The exact definition of evil is left for the GM to decide. Note that items such as ordinary traps or poisons are not “evil,” and thus not detectable by this spell.

Reversed, this spell becomes detect good, which works just as described above with respect to detecting “good” enchantments, angelic creatures, and so on.

Detect Invisible

Range: 60'

Magic User 2

Duration: 1 turn/level

By means of this spell the caster is able to see invisible characters, creatures or objects within the given range, seeing them as translucent shapes.

Detect Magic

Range: 60'

Cleric 1, Magic-User 1

Duration: 2 turns

The caster of this spell is able to detect enchanted or enspelled objects or creatures within the given range by sight, seeing them surrounded by a pale glowing light. Only the caster sees the glow. Invisible creatures or objects are not detected by this spell, but the emanations of the invisibility magic will be seen as an amorphous glowing fog, possibly allowing the caster (only) to attack the invisible creature at an attack penalty of only -2.

Dimension Door

Range: 10'

Magic User 4

Duration: instantaneous

The caster of this spell instantly transfers himself or herself, or any single target creature within range, to any spot within 200' plus 20' per caster level. The caster or target creature always arrives at exactly the spot desired, whether the caster visualizes the area or states direction and distance. An unwilling target may save vs. Spells to avoid being transported. Anything worn or carried by the caster or target creature will be transported also, including another character or creature if the transportee can lift it. If the target area is within a solid object, the spell fails automatically.

Disintegrate

Range: 60'

Magic User 6

Duration: instantaneous

This spell causes a thin, green ray to spring from the caster's pointing finger. Any single creature or object (up to a 10x10x10 foot cube of material) is entirely disintegrated, leaving behind only a trace of fine dust. A disintegrated creature’s equipment is unaffected.

A creature that makes a successful save vs. Spells is unaffected. The ray can target only one creature per casting, if that target saves, the spell is wasted.

Dispel Evil

Range: touch

Cleric 5

Duration: 1 round/level

This powerful spell aids the caster in dealing with creatures from the nether planes, hereafter called “evil creatures.”

First, the caster gains a +4 bonus to Armor Class against attacks by evil creatures.

Second, the caster can choose to drive an evil creature back to its home plane by touch (requiring a successful attack roll). The creature can negate the effects with a successful save vs. Spells. This use discharges and ends the spell, even if the saving throw succeeds.

Third, with a touch the caster can automatically dispel any one spell cast by an evil creature. Exception: Spells that can’t be dispelled by dispel magic also can’t be dispelled by dispel evil. Saving throws do not apply to this effect. This use also ends the spell.

The exact definition of evil is left for the GM to decide; however, extraplanar creatures that oppose the caster should almost always qualify.

Dispel Magic

Range: 120'

Cleric 4, Magic-User 3

Duration: instantaneous

The caster can use dispel magic to end ongoing spells that have been cast on a creature or object, or to end ongoing spells (or at least their effects) within a cubic area 20' on a side. The caster must choose whether to dispel magic on a creature or object, or to affect an area.

If dispel magic is targeted at a creature, all spell effects (including ongoing potion effects) may be canceled. If cast upon an area, all such effects within the area may be canceled. Any spell or effect having a caster level equal to or less than the dispel magic caster's level is ended automatically. Those created by higher level casters might not be canceled; there is a 5% chance the dispel magic will fail for each level the spell effect exceeds the caster level. For example, a 10th level caster dispelling magic created by a 14th level caster has a 20% chance of failure.

Some spells cannot be ended by dispel magic; this specifically includes any curse, including those created by bestow curse (the reverse of remove curse) as well as by cursed items.

ESP

Range: 60'

Magic User 2

Duration: 1 turn/level

This spell permits the caster to detect the surface thoughts of one or more targets within range. The caster must designate a direction, and then concentrate for a turn in order to “hear” the thoughts. Each turn the caster may choose to “listen” in a different direction. The caster may stop listening, then resume again later, so long as the duration has not expired. The target creature is not normally aware of being spied upon in this way.

Rock more than 2 inches thick or a thin coating of lead or gold will block the spell. All undead creatures are immune to this effect, as are mindless creatures such as golems.

Feeblemind

Range: 180'

Magic User 5

Duration: permanent

If the target creature fails a saving throw vs. Spells, its Intelligence and Charisma scores each drop to 1. The affected creature is unable to cast spells, understand language, or communicate coherently. The victim does remember who its friends are and can follow and protect them from harm. The subject remains in this state until a heal spell is used to cancel the effect. A target creature that can cast Magic-User spells suffers a penalty of -4 on its saving throw against this spell.

Find Traps

Range: 30'

Cleric 2

Duration: 3 turns

This spell permits the caster to detect a variety of traps, both mechanical and magical. When the caster moves within 30’ of a trap, he or she will see it glow with a faint greenish-blue aura. The caster is not, however, able to detect certain natural hazards such as quicksand, a sinkhole, or unsafe walls of natural rock. The spell also does not bestow the caster with the knowledge needed to disarm the trap, nor any details about its type or nature.

Find the Path

Range: touch

Cleric 6

Duration: 1 turn/level

The recipient of this spell can find the shortest, most direct physical route to a specified destination. The caster must have some knowledge about the location; any location the caster has ever visited can be so located, as well as locations described to the caster. Even knowing the name of a location (if it has a name) is enough for this spell to function.

The locale can be outdoors or underground. Find the path works with respect to locations, not objects or creatures. The location must be on the same plane as the caster at the time of casting.

The spell enables the subject to sense the correct direction that will eventually lead it to its destination, indicating at appropriate times the exact path to follow or physical actions to take. For example, the spell enables the subject to detect secret doors and to know any passwords required. The spell ends when the destination is reached or the duration expires, whichever comes first.

Fireball

Range: 100'+10'/level

Magic User 3

Duration: instantaneous

A fireball spell creates an explosion of flame that detonates with a low roar and deals 1d6 points of fire damage per caster level to every creature within a spherical volume having a 20' radius. A save vs. Spells for half damage is allowed. The explosion creates almost no pressure.

The caster points a finger and determines the range (distance and height) at which the fireball is to burst. A glowing, pea-sized bead streaks from the pointing digit and, unless it impacts upon a material body or solid barrier prior to attaining the prescribed range, blossoms into the fireball at that point. (An early impact results in an early detonation.) If the caster attempts to send the bead through a narrow passage, such as through an arrow slit, he or she must roll a missile attack (without range adjustments) to hit the opening, or else the bead strikes the barrier and detonates prematurely.

The fireball sets fire to combustibles and damages objects in the area. It can melt metals with low melting points, such as lead, gold, copper, silver, and bronze. If the damage caused to an interposing barrier shatters or breaks through it, the fireball may continue beyond the barrier in order to attain its full volume.

Flesh to Stone*

Range: 30'/level

Magic User 6

Duration: permanent

This spell causes the subject, along with all its carried gear, to turn into a mindless, inert statue. A saving throw vs. Petrification is allowed to resist the spell. If the statue resulting from this spell is broken or damaged, the subject (if ever returned to its original state) suffers equivalent damage or deformities. Only creatures made of flesh are affected by this spell.

The reverse spell, stone to flesh, acts as a counterspell for flesh to stone, restoring the creature just as it was when it was petrified. It does nothing if applied to stone that is not the result of flesh to stone or similar petrification effects (such as a medusa's gaze).

Floating Disc

Range: 0

Magic User 1

Duration: 5 turns +1/level

This spell creates an invisible, slightly concave circular plane of force for carrying loads. It is about the size of a shield, being 3 feet in diameter and 1 inch deep at its center. It can hold a maximum of 500 pounds of weight. (Note that water weighs about 8 pounds per gallon.) The disc must be loaded so that the items placed upon it are properly supported, or they will (of course) fall off. For example, the disc can support just over 62 gallons of water, but the water must be in a barrel or other reasonable container that can be placed upon the disc. Similarly, a pile of loose coins will tend to slip and slide about, and some will fall off with every step the caster takes; but a large sack full of coins, properly tied, will remain stable.

The disc floats level to the ground, at about the height of the caster's waist. It remains still when within 10' of the caster, and follows at the caster's movement rate if he or she moves away from it. The floating disc can be pushed as needed to position it but will be dispelled if somehow moved more than 10' from the caster. When the spell duration expires, the disc disappears from existence and drops whatever was supported to the surface beneath.

Fly

Range: touch

Magic User 3

Duration: 1 turn/level

The subject of this spell can fly at a speed equal to his or her normal ground movement rate (as adjusted by encumbrance). The subject can ascend at half speed and descend at double speed, with the same maneuverability as the subject has when moving on the ground. Flying under the effect of this spell requires only as much concentration as walking, so the subject can attack or cast spells normally. The subject of a fly spell can neither charge nor run, nor carry aloft more weight than his or her maximum load.

Should the spell duration expire while the subject is still aloft, the magic fails slowly. The subject floats downward 120' per round for 1d10 rounds. If the subject reaches the ground in that amount of time, he or she lands safely. If not, the subject falls the rest of the distance, taking normal falling damage. Since dispelling a spell effectively ends it, the subject also descends in this way if the fly spell is dispelled.

Geas*

Range: 5' per level

Magic User 6

Duration: special

Geas places a magical command on a creature to carry out some service or to refrain from some action or course of activity, as desired by the caster. The target creature must be able to understand the caster for this spell to take effect. While a geas cannot compel a creature to kill itself or perform acts that would result in certain death, it can cause almost any other course of activity.

A saving throw vs. Spells will allow an unwilling target to resist a geas when it is first cast. However, the target may choose to accept the geas, typically as part of a bargain with the caster to perform some service.

The geased creature must follow the given instructions until the geas is completed, no matter how long it takes.

If the instructions involve some open-ended task that the recipient cannot complete through his or her own actions, the spell remains in effect for a maximum of one day per caster level. A clever recipient can subvert some instructions, at the GM's discretion.

For every 24 hours that the subject chooses not to obey the geas (or is prevented from obeying it), it suffers a –2 penalty to each of its ability scores, up to a total of –8. No ability score can be reduced to less than 3 by this effect. The ability score penalties are removed 24 hours after the subject resumes obeying the geas.

A geas (and all effects thereof) can be ended by a remove curse spell, or by a wish, or by the reverse of this spell. Dispel magic does not affect a geas.

Growth of Animals

Cleric 3

Range: 60'+10'/level

Duration: 1 turn/level

This spell causes an animal to grow to twice its normal size and eight times its normal weight. The affected creature will do double normal damage with all physical attacks, and its existing natural Armor Class increases by 2. The animal's carrying capacity is also doubled. Unfriendly animals may save vs. Spells to resist this spell; normally, domesticated animals will not attempt to resist it, though they may become confused or panicky afterward (at the GM's discretion).

All equipment worn or carried by an animal is similarly enlarged by the spell, though this change has no effect on the magical properties of any such equipment. Any enlarged item that leaves the enlarged creature’s possession instantly returns to its normal size.

The spell gives no means of command or influence over the enlarged animals.

Growth of Plants*

Range: 120'

Magic User 4

Duration: permanent

This spell causes normal vegetation (grasses, briars, bushes, creepers, thistles, trees, vines, etc.) within range to become thick and overgrown. The dimensions of the growth are determined by the caster, but cannot exceed 1000 sq. feet (a 10'x100' area or equivalent) per 5 caster levels. The plants entwine to form a thicket or jungle that creatures must hack or force a way through. All movement within the affected area is reduced to no more than 5’ per round for less than giant sized creatures; giant sized creatures are reduced to half normal movement rate. The area must have brush and/or trees in it for this spell to take effect.

The reverse form, shrink plants, may be used to render overgrown areas passable. The area of effect is identical to the normal version.

Growth of plants and its reverse are permanent until countered, either by the opposite form or by dispel magic. This spell has no effect on animated plant creatures of any sort.

Hallucinatory Terrain

Magic User 4

Range: 400'+40'/level

Duration: 12 turns/level

This spell makes one 10 yard cube per level of outdoor terrain appear like a different type (i.e. field into forest, grassland into desert, or the like). This spell requires a full turn to cast.

The affected terrain looks, sounds, and smells like another sort of natural terrain. Structures, equipment, and creatures within the area are not hidden or changed in appearance. A save vs. Spells is allowed to see through the illusion, but only if the creatures or characters affected actively attempt to do so.

Haste*

Range: 30'+10'/level

Magic User 3

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell accelerates the actions of 1 creature per caster level. The affected creatures move and act twice as quickly as normal, having double their normal movement rates and making twice the normal attacks per round, for the duration of the spell. Spellcasting is not accelerated, nor is the use of magic items such as wands, which may still be used just once per round. Multiple haste or speed effects don’t combine; only apply the most powerful or longest lasting effect.

Reversed, haste becomes slow; affected creatures move at half speed, attacking half as often (generally, every other round) and making half a normal move each round. Naturally, target creatures may save vs. Spells to avoid the effect. Haste and slow counter and dispel each other.

Heal*

Range: touch

Cleric 6

Duration: permanent

Heal enables the caster to wipe away injury and afflictions. It immediately ends any and all of the following adverse conditions affecting the target: ability damage, blindness, confusion, deafness, disease, exhaustion or fatigue, feeblemind, insanity, nausea, and poison. It also restores all but 1d4 of the target's hit points. Heal does not remove negative levels or restore permanently drained ability score points.

The reversed spell, harm, injures the creature touched so horribly that it is left with only 1d4 hit points. The caster must succeed at a normal attack roll in this case; failure means the spell is wasted. Note that, if the victim has fewer hit points remaining than the number rolled, he or she will take at least one point of damage (and this is the only case in which harm may kill a creature).

Generally, both heal and harm only affect living creatures. If used against an undead creature, heal instead acts like harm; likewise, harm affects undead like heal. Constructs such as golems are unaffected by either spell.

Hold Monster

Range: 180'

Magic User 5

Duration: 2d8 turns

This spell functions like hold person, except that it affects any living creature that fails its save vs. Spells.

Hold Person

Range: 180'

Cleric 2, Magic-User 3

Duration: 2d8 turns

This spell will render any living (not undead) human, demi-human or humanoid creature paralyzed. Creatures larger than ogres will not be affected by this spell. Targets of the spell are aware, and breathe normally, but cannot take any actions, including speech. A successful save vs. Spells will negate the effect. The spell may be cast at a single person, who makes his or her save at -2, or at a group, in which case 1d4 of the creatures in the group may be affected.

A winged creature which is paralyzed cannot flap its wings and falls (if in flight at the time). A paralyzed swimmer can’t swim and may drown.

Hold Portal

Range: 100'+10'/level

Magic User 1

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell magically holds shut a door, gate, window, or shutter of wood, metal, or stone. The magic affects the portal just as if it were securely closed and normally locked. A knock spell or a successful dispel magic spell can negate a hold portal spell.

Ice Storm

Range: 300'+30'/level

Magic User 4

Duration: 1 round

This spell causes great magical hailstones to pound down for 1 full round, dealing 5d6 points of damage to every creature in a 20' radius around the target spot; a successful save vs. Spells will reduce damage by half. The ice storm fills a vertical volume of 40', so creatures higher than that distance above the target spot are unaffected. A –20% penalty applies to each Listen roll made within the ice storm’s effect, and all land movement within its area is at half speed. At the end of the duration, the hail disappears, leaving no aftereffects (other than the damage dealt). Any creature naturally resistant to cold takes half damage (or one-quarter damage if it makes its save).

Insect Plague

Range: 300'+30'/level

Cleric 5

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell summons one swarm of locusts per three caster levels, to a maximum of six swarms at 18th level. See Insect Swarm in the Monsters section for the effects of a swarm. The swarms must be summoned so that each one is adjacent to at least one other swarm (that is, the swarms must fill one contiguous area). The caster may summon the locust swarms so that they share the area of other creatures. Each swarm attacks any creatures occupying its area. The swarms are stationary after being summoned.

Invisibility

Range: touch

Magic User 2

Duration: special

The creature or object touched becomes invisible, vanishing from sight, including Darkvision. If the recipient is a creature carrying gear, that vanishes, too. If the spell is cast on someone else, neither the caster nor his or her allies can see the subject, unless they can normally see invisible things or employ magic to do so.

Items dropped or put down by an invisible creature become visible; items picked up disappear if tucked into the clothing or pouches worn by the creature. Light, however, never becomes invisible, although a source of light can become so (thus, the effect is that of a light with no visible source). Any part of an item that the subject carries but that extends more than 10 feet from it becomes visible. Of course, the subject is not magically silenced, and certain other conditions can render the recipient detectable (such as stepping in a puddle).

The spell ends if the subject attacks any creature or casts any spell. Actions (other than spellcasting) directed at unattended objects do not break the spell. Causing harm indirectly is not an attack. The spell lasts at most 24 hours.

Invisibility 10' Radius

Magic User 3

Range: touch

Duration: 1 turn/level

This spell functions like invisibility, except that this spell confers invisibility upon all creatures within 10 feet of the recipient. The center of the effect is mobile with the recipient.

Those affected by this spell can see each other and themselves as if unaffected by the spell. Affected creatures (other than the recipient) who attack negate the invisibility only for themselves, but if the spell recipient attacks, the invisibility ends for all affected creatures. Any affected creature moving out of the area becomes visible, but creatures moving into the area after the spell is cast do not become invisible (including any previously affected creatures who have become visible as described above).

Invisible Stalker

Range: 0

Magic User 6

Duration: special

The caster summons an invisible stalker to do his or her bidding (see the Monsters section, below, for details). The spell persists until dispel evil is cast on the creature, it is slain, or the task is fulfilled. The GM is advised to review the monster entry for the invisible stalker when this spell is used, as they may not always be reliable servants.

Knock

Range: 30'

Magic User 2

Duration: special

The knock spell opens stuck, barred, locked, held, or wizard locked doors. It opens secret doors, as well as locked or trick-opening boxes or chests. It also loosens welds, shackles, or chains (provided they serve to hold shut something which can be opened). If used to open a wizard locked door, the spell does not remove the wizard lock but simply suspends its functioning for one turn. In all other cases, the door does not relock itself or become stuck again on its own. Knock will not raise a portcullis or operate any other similar mechanism, nor will it affect ropes, vines, and the like. Each spell can undo a single means of preventing access.

Levitate

Range: touch

Magic User 2

Duration: 1 turn/level

Levitate allows the caster to move himself or herself, another creature, or an object up and down as desired. A creature must be willing to be levitated, and an object must be unattended or possessed by a willing creature. The caster can mentally direct the recipient to move up or down as much as 20 feet each round, by concentration. The caster cannot move the recipient horizontally, but the recipient could clamber along the face of a cliff, for example, or push against a ceiling to move laterally (generally at half its normal land speed).

A levitating creature that attacks with a weapon finds itself increasingly unstable; the first attack has a –1 attack penalty, the second –2, and so on, to a maximum penalty of –5. A full round spent stabilizing allows the creature to begin again at –1.

Light*

Range: 120'

Cleric 1, Magic-User 1

Duration: 6 turns + 1/level

This spell creates a light equal to torchlight which illuminates a 30' radius area (and provides dim light for an additional 20') around the target location or object. The effect is immobile if cast into an area, but it can be cast on a movable object. Light taken into an area of magical darkness does not function.

Reversed, light becomes darkness, creating an area of darkness just as described above. This darkness blocks out Darkvision and negates mundane light sources.

A light spell may be cast to counter and dispel the darkness spell of an equal or lower level caster (and vice versa). Doing so causes both spells to instantly cease, restoring the existing ambient light level.

Either version of this spell may be used to blind an opponent by means of casting it on the target's ocular organs. The target is allowed a saving throw vs. Death Ray to avoid the effect, and if the save is made, the spell does not take effect at all. A light or darkness spell cast to blind does not have the given area of effect (that is, no light or darkness is shed around the victim).

Lightning Bolt

Range: 50'+10'/level

Magic User 3

Duration: instantaneous

This spell releases a powerful stroke of electrical energy that deals 1d6 points of electricity damage per caster level to each creature within its area. A save vs. Spells for half damage is allowed. The bolt begins at the caster's fingertips and extends to the range given. The caster may choose to limit the range of the spell, but the minimum range is 60 feet. The lightning bolt passes through an area 5' wide, arcing and jumping, so that, while it is not actually 5' wide, for game purposes treat it as if it is so.

The lightning bolt sets fire to combustibles and damages objects in its path. It can melt metals with a low melting point, such as lead, gold, copper, silver, or bronze. If the damage caused to an interposing barrier shatters or breaks through it, the bolt may continue beyond the barrier if the spell’s range permits; otherwise, it may reflect from the barrier back toward the caster, or in a random direction at the GM's option. Creatures already affected by the lightning bolt do not take additional damage if struck by the reflection of the same bolt.

Locate Object

Range: 360'

Cleric 3, Magic-User 2

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell allows the caster to sense the direction of a well-known or clearly visualized object. He or she can search for general items, in which case the nearest one of its kind is located if more than one is within range. The caster cannot specify a unique item unless he or she has observed that particular item firsthand (not merely through divination such as clairvoyance or a crystal ball). The spell is blocked by even a thin sheet of lead or gold. Creatures cannot be found by this spell.

Lower Water

Range: 360'

Magic User 6

Duration: 1 turn/level

Type of Mercenary Cost Equipment Morale
Light Foot, Human 2 Leather Armor, Shield, and Longsword 8
Light Foot, Elf 8 Leather Armor, Shield, and Longsword 8
Light Foot, Orc 1 Leather Armor and Spear 7
Heavy Foot, Human 3 Chainmail, Shield, and Longsword 8
Heavy Foot, Dwarf 6 Chainmail, Shield, and Shortsword 9
Heavy Foot, Orc 2 Chainmail, Shield, and Shortsword 8
Archer, Human 5 Leather Armor, Shortbow, and Shortsword 8
Archer, Elf 15 Chainmail, Shortbow, and Shortsword 8
Archer, Orc 3 Leather Armor, Shortbow, and Shortsword 8
Crossbowman, Human 5 Chainmail, Crossbow, and Shortsword 8
Crossbowman, Dwarf 12 Platemail, Crossbow, and Shortsword 9
Longbowman, Human 9 Chainmail, Longbow, and Shortsword 8
Longbowman, Elf 20 Chainmail, Longbow, and Longsword 8
Light Horseman, Human 10 Leather Armor, Shield, Lance, and Longsword 8
Light Horseman, Elf 22 Leather Armor, Lance, Shortbow, and Longsword 8
Medium Horseman, Human 15 Chainmail, Shield, Lance, and Longsword 8
Medium Horseman, Elf 33 Chainmail, Lance, Shortbow, and Longsword 9
Heavy Horseman, Human 20 Platemail, Shield, Lance, and Longsword 8

This spell causes water or similar liquid to reduce its depth by as much as 2 feet per caster level (to a minimum depth of 1 inch). The water is lowered within a more or less square-shaped depression whose sides are up to 10 feet long per caster level. In extremely large and deep bodies of water, such as a deep ocean, the spell creates a whirlpool that sweeps ships and similar craft downward, putting them at risk and rendering them unable to leave by normal movement for the duration of the spell. When cast on water elementals and other water-based creatures, this spell acts as a slow spell (the reverse of haste); a save vs. Spells is allowed, with success negating the effect. The spell has no effect on other creatures.

Magic Jar

Range: 60'

Magic User 5

Duration: special

By casting magic jar, the caster places his or her soul in a gem or large crystal within spell range (known as the magic jar), leaving the body lifeless. The caster may then attempt to take control of a nearby living creature within spell range, forcing its soul into the magic jar. The caster may move back to the jar (thereby returning the trapped soul to its body) and attempt to possess another body. The spell ends when the caster's soul returns to his or her own body, leaving the receptacle empty.

To cast the spell, the magic jar must be within spell range and the caster must know where it is, though he or she does not need to be able to see it. When the caster transfers his or her soul upon casting, the caster's body is, as near as anyone can tell, dead, but does not undergo decay as a normal dead body would.

Possession of a creature by means of this spell is blocked by protection from evil or a similar ward. The subject is allowed a save vs. Spells to resist. Failure to take over the host leaves the caster's life force in the magic jar, and that target creature is immune to further attempts for the duration of the spell.

If the caster is successful, his or her life force occupies the host body, and the host’s life force is imprisoned in the magic jar. The caster keeps his or her Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma, level, class, attack bonus, saving throws, and mental abilities (including spellcasting ability). The body retains its Strength, Dexterity, Constitution, hit points, and natural abilities. A body with extra limbs does not allow the caster to make more attacks than normal. The caster does not have access to any extraordinary or supernatural abilities of the body.

If the caster's spirit is in the magic jar, and the jar is broken (whether by dispel magic or physical damage): If the jar is in range of the caster's body, the caster's spirit returns to its body. Otherwise, the caster's spirit departs (the caster dies). In either case, the spell ends.

If the caster's spirit is driven from the host body by dispel evil: If the magic jar is in range of the host body, the caster's spirit returns to the jar, and the host's spirit returns to its body. The caster will not be able to possess the same host again for the remaining duration of the spell. If the magic jar is not in range of the host body, the caster's spirit departs, the host's spirit is freed from the jar (and departs), and the host's body dies.

If the host's spirit is in the magic jar, and the jar is broken: If the jar is in range of the host's body, the caster's spirit departs, the host's spirit returns to its body, and the spell ends. Otherwise, the host's spirit departs, and the caster's spirit is stranded in the host body. Note here that the spell has not ended. Dispel evil can still be used to drive the caster's spirit from the body, which departs as noted, ending the spell.

In any case where the spell ends with the caster's body unoccupied by a spirit, that body does truly die.

Magic Missile

Range: 100'+10'/level

Magic User 1

Duration: instantaneous

This spell causes a missile of magical energy to dart forth from the caster's fingertip and strike its target, which must be at least partially visible to the caster, dealing 1d6+1 points of damage. The missile strikes unerringly. Specific parts of a creature can’t be singled out. Inanimate objects are not damaged by the spell.

For every three caster levels beyond 1st, an additional missile is fired – two at 4th level, three at 7th, four at 10th, and the maximum of five missiles at 13th level or higher. If the caster fires multiple missiles, he or she can target a single creature or several creatures. A single missile can strike only one creature. Targets must be designated before damage is rolled.

Magic Mouth

Range: 30'

Magic User 1

Duration: special

This spell imbues the chosen non-living object with an enchanted mouth that suddenly appears and speaks its message the next time a specified event occurs. The message, which may be up to three words per caster level long, can be in any language known by the caster and can be delivered over a period of 10 minutes, at any volume from a whisper to a yell. The voice will resemble the caster's, but will not be identical. The mouth cannot use command words or activate magical effects. It does, however, move according to the words articulated; if it were placed upon a statue, the mouth of the statue would move and appear to speak. Of course, magic mouth can be placed upon a tree, rock, or any other object.

The spell functions when specific conditions are fulfilled according to the caster's command as set in the spell. Commands can be as general or as detailed as desired, although only visual and audible triggers can be used. Triggers react to what appears to be the case. Disguises and illusions can fool them. Normal darkness does not defeat a visual trigger, but magical darkness or invisibility does. Silent movement or magical silence defeats audible triggers. Audible triggers can be keyed to general types of noises or to a specific noise or spoken word. Actions can serve as triggers if they are visible or audible. A magic mouth cannot distinguish level, hit dice, or class except by external garb.

The range limit of a trigger is 10 feet per caster level, so a 6th-level caster can command a magic mouth to respond to triggers as far as 60 feet away. Regardless of range, the mouth can respond only to visible or audible triggers and actions in line of sight or within hearing distance.

Massmorph

Range: 100'+10'/level

Magic User 4

Duration: 1 hour/level

With this spell the caster causes 1d4+1 man-sized (or smaller) creatures per four caster levels to appear as if they are natural effects of the terrain (for example, trees in a forest, stalagmites in a cave, coral underwater, boulders in a cavern, etc.). All creatures to be affected must be within a 120' radius of the caster at the time the spell is cast. Only those creatures the caster wishes to hide are affected, and then only if they are willing to be concealed. The caster may include himself or herself among the affected creatures.

Those affected are thus concealed from other creatures passing through the area for so long as they remain still. If an affected creature chooses to move or attack, the illusion is dispelled for that creature, but those who remain still continue to be hidden. The caster may end the spell early if he or she wishes by speaking a single word. The illusion can also be ended by dispel magic.

Mirror Image

Range: self

Magic User 2

Duration: 1 turn/level

This spell creates several illusory duplicates of the caster. The images move through each other as well as the real caster more or less constantly, making it impossible for most creatures to determine which is real. A total of 1d4 images plus one image per three caster levels (maximum eight images total) are created. These figments separate from the caster and remain in a cluster around him or her. The figments mimic the caster's actions, pretending to cast spells, drink potions, levitate, and so on, just as the caster does. Figments always look exactly like the caster.

Enemies attempting to attack or cast spells upon the caster will always hit a figment instead. Any attack against an image destroys it, whether the attack roll is successful or not; likewise, attack spells cast directly upon a figment will destroy it, with no saving throw allowed. Area-effect spells are not cast directly on the caster, and thus appear to affect all figments exactly as they affect the caster; for instance, if the caster is subjected to a fireball, all figments will appear to be injured just as the caster was.

Neutralize Poison*

Range: touch

Cleric 4

Duration: instantaneous

This spell detoxifies any sort of venom in the creature or object touched. A poisoned creature suffers no additional effects from the poison; if cast upon a creature slain by poison in the last 10 rounds, the creature is revived with 1 hit point. If cast upon a poisonous object (weapon, trap, etc.) the poison is rendered permanently ineffective.

Reversed, this spell becomes poison. The caster must make a successful attack roll; if the attack is a success, the target must save vs. Poison or die. The caster's touch remains poisonous for 1 round per level of ability, or until discharged (i.e. only one creature can be affected by the reversed spell).

Passwall

Range: 30'

Magic User 5

Duration: 3 turns

Passwall creates a passage through wooden, plaster, or stone walls, but not through metal or other harder materials. The passage is up to 10 feet deep plus an additional 10 feet deep per three caster levels above 9th (20 feet at 12th, 30 feet deep at 15th, 40 feet deep at 18th). If the wall’s thickness is more than the depth of the passage created, then a single passwall simply makes a niche or short tunnel. Several passwall spells can then form a continuing passage to breach very thick walls. When passwall ends (due to duration, dispel magic, or caster's choice), creatures within the passage are ejected out the nearest exit.

Phantasmal Force

Range: 180'

Magic User 2

Duration: concentration

This spell creates the visual illusion of an object, creature (or small group of creatures), or other effect, as visualized by the caster up to a maximum size of 20'x20'x20'. The illusion does not create sound, smell, texture, or temperature. The caster can animate the image within the limits of the area of effect. The image persists so long as the caster concentrates upon it.

If used to create the illusion of one or more creatures, they will have an Armor Class of 11 and will disappear if hit in combat. Damage done by monsters, spells, etc. simulated by this spell is not real; those “killed” or otherwise apparently disabled will wake up uninjured (at least from this spell) after 2d8 rounds. The illusory damage done will be equivalent to the normal damage for any attack form simulated.

Attempting to animate more creatures than the caster's level grants viewing creatures with at least average Intelligence an immediate save vs. Spells to recognize the creatures as illusions; those making the save will be unaffected by any actions taken by the illusions from that point on. A similar save may be granted by the GM any time he or she feels the illusion is likely to be seen through, especially if the player describes an illusion which seems improbable or otherwise poorly conceived.

Polymorph Other

Range: 30'

Magic User 4

Duration: permanent

This spell allows the caster to change one target into another form of living creature. The assumed form can’t have more hit dice than caster’s level, or be incorporeal or gaseous. Unlike polymorph self, the transformed target also gains the behavioral and mental traits, any physical attacks, special, supernatural or spell-like abilities of the new form, in addition to the physical capabilities and statistics of such. If the new form is substantially less intelligent, the target may not remember its former life.

The target creature will have the same number of hit points it previously had, regardless of the hit dice of the form assumed. Incorporeal or gaseous creatures are immune to this spell, as noted above. A creature with shape changing abilities such as a doppleganger can revert to its natural form in one round.

Unwilling targets that successfully save against Polymorph are not affected. The spell is permanent until dispelled or the creature is slain, at which time the target reverts to his or her original form.

Polymorph Self

Range: self

Magic User 4

Duration: 1 hour/level

This spell allows the caster to change into another form of living creature. The assumed form can’t have more hit dice than the caster's level. The caster can’t assume an incorporeal or gaseous form. If slain, the caster reverts to his or her original form.

The caster gains the physical capabilities and statistics of the new form but retains his or her own mental abilities. He or she also gains all physical attacks possessed by the form but does not gain any special, supernatural or spell-like abilities. Dragon breath is a special ability, for instance, so were the caster to assume the form of a dragon he or she could use the dragon's normal claw, bite, and tail swipe attacks, but not the dragon's breath.

The caster can remain transformed up to one hour per level of ability, or may choose to end the spell whenever he or she desires (up to one hour per level, of course).

Projected Image

Range: 240'

Magic User 6

Duration: 6 turns

This spell creates a quasi-real, illusory version of the caster. The intangible projected image looks, sounds, and smells like the caster, in addition to mimicking gestures and actions (including speech). Any further spells cast seem to originate from the illusion, not the actual caster. A line of sight between the caster and his or her illusory self must be maintained or the spell ends. Dimension door, teleport, or any similar spell that breaks the line of sight dispels the image, as does the illusionary caster being struck in combat. Note that this spell grants no special sensory powers to the caster; for example, if the illusory self is positioned so as to be able to see something the caster can't directly see, the caster does not see it. Also, all spell ranges are still figured from the caster's actual position, not the illusory self's position.

Protection from Evil*

Cleric 1, Magic-User 1

Range: touch

Duration: 1 turn/level

This spell wards a creature from attacks by evil creatures, from mental control, and from summoned creatures. It creates a magical barrier around the subject at a distance of 1 foot. The barrier moves with the subject and has three major effects.

First, the subject gains a +2 bonus to AC and a +2 bonus on saves. Both these bonuses apply against attacks made or effects created by evil creatures. Note that the definition of “evil” is left to the individual GM to decide.

Second, the barrier blocks any attempt to possess the warded creature (by a magic jar attack, for example) or to exercise mental control over the creature (including charm spells or effects). The protection does not prevent such effects from targeting the protected creature, but it suppresses the effect for the duration of the protection from evil effect. If the protection from evil effect ends before the effect granting control does, the would-be controller would then be able to command the controlled creature. Likewise, the barrier keeps out a possessing life force but does not expel one if it is in place before the spell is cast.

Third, the spell prevents bodily contact by summoned creatures (regardless of whether they are “evil” or not). This causes the natural weapon attacks of such creatures to fail and the creatures to recoil if such attacks require touching the warded creature. The protection against contact by summoned creatures ends if the warded creature makes an attack against or tries to force the barrier against the blocked creature.

Reversed, this spell becomes protection from good. It functions in all ways as described above, save that “good” creatures are kept away, rather than “evil” creatures.

Attack Bonus Table

Fighter Level Cleric or Thief Level Magic-User Level Monster Hit Dice Attack Bonus
NM less than 1 +0
1 1-2 1-3 1 +1
2-3 3-4 4-5 2 +2
4 5-6 6-8 3 +3
5-6 7-8 9-12 4 +4
7 9-11 13-15 5 +5
8-10 12-14 16-18 6 +6
11-12 15-17 19-20 7 +7
13-15 18-20 8-9 +8
16-17 10-11 +9
18-20 12-13 +10
14-15 +11
16-19 +12
20-23 +13
24-27 +14
28-31 +15
32 or more +16
Protection from Evil 10' Radius*

Cleric 4, Magic-User 3

Range: touch

Duration: 1 turn/level

This spell functions exactly as protection from evil, but with a 10' radius rather than a 1' radius. All within the radius receive the protection; those who leave and then re-enter, or who enter after the spell is cast, receive the protection as well.

Reversed, this spell becomes protection from good 10' radius, and functions exactly as the reversed form of protection from evil, except that it covers a 10' radius around the target rather than the normal 1' radius.

Protection from Normal Missiles

Magic User 3

Range: self

Duration: 1 turn/level

The caster is completely protected from small sized, non-magical missile attacks. Therefore, magic arrows, hurled boulders, or other such are not blocked, but any number of normal arrows, sling bullets, crossbow bolts, thrown daggers, etc. will be fended off. Note that normal missiles projected by magic bows count as magical missiles for the purposes of this spell.

Purify Food and Water

Cleric 1

Range: 10'

Duration: instantaneous

This spell makes spoiled, rotten, poisonous, or otherwise contaminated food and water pure and suitable for eating and drinking. This spell does not prevent subsequent natural decay or spoilage. Unholy water and similar food and drink of significance is spoiled by purify food and drink, but the spell has no effect on creatures of any type nor upon magic potions.

Quest*

Range: 5'/level

Cleric 5

Duration: special

Quest places a magical command on a creature to carry out some service or to refrain from some action or course of activity, as desired by the caster. The target creature must be able to understand the caster for this spell to take effect. While a quest cannot compel a creature to kill itself or perform acts that would result in certain death, it can cause almost any other course of activity.

A saving throw vs. Spells will allow an unwilling target to resist a quest when it is first cast. However, the target may choose to accept the quest, typically as part of a bargain with the caster to perform some service.

The affected creature must follow the given instructions until the quest is completed, no matter how long it takes.

If the instructions involve some open-ended task that the recipient cannot complete through his own actions the spell remains in effect for a maximum of one day per caster level. A clever recipient can subvert some instructions.

If the subject is prevented from obeying the quest for 24 hours, it takes 3d6 points of damage each day.

A quest (and all effects thereof) can be ended by a remove curse spell from a caster two or more levels higher than the caster of the quest, or by a wish, or by the reverse of this spell. Dispel magic does not affect a quest spell.

Raise Dead*

Range: touch

Cleric 5

Duration: instantaneous

This spell restores life to a deceased human, demi-human or humanoid. The caster can raise a creature that has been dead for no longer than one day per caster level. In addition, the subject’s soul must be free and willing to return. If the subject’s soul is not willing to return, the spell does not work.

Coming back from the dead is an ordeal. The subject of the spell loses one level (or 1 hit die) when it is raised, permanently (i.e. it does not accrue a negative level, but rather loses an actual level, being reduced to the minimum number of experience points required for the previous level). If the subject is 1st level, it loses 1 point of Constitution instead (if this would reduce its Constitution to 0 or less, it can’t be raised). This level, hit dice, or Constitution loss cannot be repaired by any means, though of course the character may gain levels and hit dice in the normal fashion.

Also note, a character who died with spells prepared has none prepared upon being raised.

A raised creature has a number of hit points equal to its current hit dice. Normal poison and normal disease are cured in the process of raising the subject, but magical diseases and curses are not undone. While the spell closes mortal wounds and repairs lethal damage of most kinds, the body of the creature to be raised must be whole. Otherwise, missing parts are still missing when the creature is brought back to life. None of the dead creature’s equipment or possessions are affected in any way by this spell.

A creature which has become undead can’t be raised by this spell. Constructs and elementals cannot be raised. The spell cannot bring back a creature that has died of old age.

The reverse of this spell, slay living, will kill instantly the creature touched (which may be of any sort, not just a human, demi-human or humanoid) unless a save vs. Spells is made. If the saving throw is successful, 2d6 damage is dealt to the victim instead. An attack roll is required to apply this spell in combat.

Read Languages

Range: 0

Magic User 1

Duration: special

This spell grants the caster the ability to read almost any written language. It may be cast in one of three modes:

In the first mode, the spell allows the caster to read any number of written works in a variety of languages. This mode lasts for 1 turn per caster level.

In the second mode, the spell allows the caster to read any one book or tome; this mode lasts 3 hours per caster level.

In the third mode, the spell allows the caster to read any one non-magical scroll or other single-sheet document; this mode is permanent.

This spell does not work on any sort of magical text, such as spell scrolls or spellbooks; see r ead m agic, below, for the correct spell to use in such cases.

The spell grants the ability to read the texts, but does not in any way hasten the reading nor grant understanding of concepts the caster doesn't otherwise have the ability to understand. Also, for this spell to function, there must be at least one living creature that can read the given language somewhere on the same plane. The knowledge is not copied from that creature's mind; rather, it is the existence of the knowledge that enables the spell to function.

Read Magic

Range: 0

Magic User 1

Duration: permanent

When cast upon any magical text, such as a spellbook or magic-user spell scroll, this spell enables the caster to read that text. Casting this spell on a cursed text will generally trigger the curse. All Magic-Users begin play knowing this spell, and it can be prepared even if the Magic-User loses access to his or her spellbook.

Regenerate

Range: touch

Cleric 6

Duration: permanent

This spell causes the subject’s severed body members (fingers, toes, hands, feet, arms, legs, tails, or even heads of multiheaded creatures), broken bones, and ruined organs to grow back. After the spell is cast, the physical regeneration is complete in 1 round if the severed members are present and touching the creature. Otherwise, a full turn is required for the regeneration to complete.

This spell also heals 3d8 points of damage. Regenerate has no effect on nonliving creatures or constructs (including undead).

Reincarnate

Range: touch

Magic User 6

Duration: instantaneous

With this spell, the caster brings back a dead character (or humanoid creature) in another body, provided that its death occurred no more than one week before the casting of the spell and the subject’s soul is free and willing to return. If the subject’s soul is not willing to return, the spell does not work.

Roll on the following table to determine what sort of creature the character becomes:

d% Incarnation
01–02 Bugbear
03–17 Dwarf
18–28 Elf
29 Gnoll
30–39 Gnome
40–44 Goblin
45–63 Halfling
64–88 Human
89–92 Kobold
93 Lizard Man
94–98 Orc
99 Troglodyte
100 Other (GM's choice)

Since the dead character is returning in a new body, all physical ills and afflictions are repaired. The condition of the remains is not a factor. So long as some small portion of the character’s body still exists, it can be reincarnated, but the portion receiving the spell must have been part of the character’s body at the time of death. The magic of the spell creates an entirely new young adult body for the soul to inhabit from the natural elements at hand. This process takes one hour to complete. When the body is ready, the subject is reincarnated.

A reincarnated character recalls the majority of its former life and form. Its class is unchanged, as are the character's Intelligence, Wisdom, and Charisma. Strength, Dexterity, and Constitution scores should be rerolled. (If the character's ability scores are outside the allowable range for the new form, they should be adjusted up or down by the GM as needed.) The subject’s level (or Hit Dice) is reduced by 1; this is a real reduction, not a negative level, and is not subject to magical restoration. Roll one hit die and subtract the total from the character's original hit point total; this is the new form's hit points. If the subject was 1st level, instead of a hit point reduction, its new Constitution score is reduced by 2.

A character that has been turned into an undead creature or killed by a death effect can’t be returned to life by this spell. Constructs, elementals, and undead creatures can’t be reincarnated. The spell cannot bring back a creature who has died of old age.

The reincarnated creature gains all abilities associated with its new form, including forms of movement and speeds, natural armor, natural attacks, extraordinary abilities, and the like, but it doesn’t automatically speak the language of the new form.

Remove Curse*

Range: 30'

Cleric 3, Magic-User 4

Duration: instantaneous

Remove curse instantaneously removes all curses on an object or a creature. Remove curse does not remove the curse from a cursed shield, weapon, or suit of armor, although the spell typically enables the creature afflicted with any such cursed item to remove and get rid of it. Certain special curses may not be countered by this spell or may be removed only by a caster of a certain level.

The reverse of this spell, bestow curse, allows the caster to place a curse on the subject. A save vs. Spells is allowed to resist. The caster must choose one of the following three effects:

–4 decrease to an ability score (minimum 1).

–4 penalty on attack rolls and saves.

Each round of combat, the target has a 50% chance to act normally; otherwise, it takes no action.

Clerics vs. Undead Table

Cleric Level Skeleton Zombie Ghoul Wight Wraith Mummy Spectre Vampire Ghost
1 Hit Die 2 Hit Dice 3 Hit Dice 4 Hit Dice 5 Hit Dice 6 Hit Dice 7 Hit Dice 8 Hit Dice 9+ Hit Dice
1 13 17 19 No No No No No No
2 11 15 18 20 No No No No No
3 9 13 17 19 No No No No No
4 7 11 15 18 20 No No No No
5 5 9 13 17 19 No No No No
6 3 7 11 15 18 20 No No No
7 2 5 9 13 17 19 No No No
8 T 3 7 11 15 18 20 No No
9 T 2 5 9 13 17 19 No No
10 T T 3 7 11 15 18 20 No
11 D T 2 5 9 13 17 19 No
12 D T T 3 7 11 15 18 20
13 D D T 2 5 9 13 17 19
14 D D T T 3 7 11 15 18
15 D D D T 2 5 9 13 17
16 D D D T T 3 7 11 15
17 D D D D T 2 5 9 13
18 D D D D T T 3 7 11
19 D D D D D T 2 5 9
20 D D D D D T T 3 7

The caster may also invent his or her own curse, but it should be no more powerful than those described above. The curse thus bestowed cannot be dispelled, but it can be removed with a remove curse spell.

Remove Fear*

Range: touch (120')

Cleric 1

Duration: instantaneous

(2 turns)

This spell will calm the creature touched. If the target creature is currently subject to any sort of magical fear, it is allowed a new save vs. Spells to resist that fear, at a bonus of +1 per level of the caster.

The reverse of this spell, cause fear, causes one target creature within 120' to become frightened; if the target fails to save vs. Spells, it flees for 2 turns. Creatures with 6 or more hit dice are immune to this effect.

Resist Cold

Range: touch

Cleric 1

Duration: 1 round/level

This abjuration grants a creature temporary immunity to cold. Minor cold (such as exposure to winter weather in inadequate clothing) is ignored by the affected creature. Against more significant cold (such as the breath of a White Dragon), the affected creature gains a bonus of +3 on saving throws, and all damage from such attacks is reduced by half (round up).

Resist Fire

Range: touch

Cleric 2

Duration: 1 round/level

This abjuration grants a creature temporary immunity to fire and heat. Minor heat or fire (such as exposure to normal flames) is ignored by the affected creature. Against more significant heat or fire (such as a fireball), the affected creature gains a bonus of +3 on saving throws, and all damage from such attacks is reduced by half (round up).

Restoration

Range: touch

Cleric 6

Duration: permanent

Each casting of the spell removes a single negative level from a creature who has suffered energy drain. At 16th level, two negative levels may be removed. See the rules for Energy Drain (in the Encounter section) for more details.

Alternately, this spell can be used to restore drained ability score points. If applied to a character who has suffered temporary loss of ability points, it will restore up to 1d4 lost points to any one drained ability immediately. If applied to a character who has suffered permanent loss of ability points, 1 point can be restored.

Restoration does not restore levels lost due to death (as described for the spell raise dead).

Shield

Range: self

Magic User 1

Duration: 5 rounds+1/level

Shield creates an invisible, shield-like mobile disk of force that hovers in front of the caster. It negates magic missile attacks directed at the caster, and improves the caster's Armor Class by +3 vs. melee attacks and +6 vs. missile weapons. The Armor Class benefits do not apply to attacks originating from behind the caster, but magic missiles are warded off from all directions.

Silence 15' Radius

Cleric 2

Range: 360'

Duration: 2 rounds/level

Upon the casting of this spell, complete silence prevails within a 15' radius around the target. All sound is stopped: Conversation is impossible, spells cannot be cast, and no noise whatsoever issues from, enters, or passes through the area. The spell can be cast on a point in space, making the effect stationary, or it may be cast on a mobile object. The spell can be centered on a creature, and the effect then radiates from the creature and moves as it moves. An unwilling creature receives a save vs. Spells to negate the spell. If an item in another creature’s possession is targeted, that creature also receives a save vs. Spells to negate. This spell provides a defense against sonic or language-based attacks or spells.

Sleep

Range: 90'

Magic User 1

Duration: 5 rounds/level

This spell puts several creatures of 3 or fewer hit dice into a magical slumber. Creatures of 4 or more hit dice are not affected. The caster chooses a point of origin for the spell (within the given range, of course), and those creatures within 30' of the chosen point may be affected. Each creature in the area of effect is allowed a save vs. Spells to resist the effect.

Sleeping creatures are helpless. Slapping or wounding awakens an affected creature, but normal noise does not. Sleep does not affect unconscious creatures, constructs, or undead creatures, and such creatures in the area of effect are ignored.

When the duration elapses, the sleeping creatures normally wake up immediately; however, if they are made very comfortable and the surroundings are quiet, the affected creatures may continue sleeping normally, at the GM's option.

Speak with Animals

Cleric 2

Range: special

Duration: 1 turn/4 levels

The caster can comprehend and communicate with any one animal (normal or giant sized, but not magical or monstrous) that is in sight of the caster and able to hear him or her. The caster may change which animal he or she is speaking with at will, once per round. The spell doesn’t alter the animal’s reaction or attitude towards the caster; a standard reaction roll should be made to determine this. Furthermore, more intelligent animals are likely to be terse and evasive, while less intelligent ones make inane comments. However, if an animal is friendly toward the caster, it may be willing to grant some favor or service.

Speak with Monsters

Cleric 6

Range: special

Duration: 1 turn/5 levels

The caster can comprehend and communicate with any one monster that is in sight of the caster and able to hear him or her. The caster may change which monster he or she is speaking with at will, once per round. Others able to understand the language spoken by the target monster (if any) will be able to understand the caster. The spell doesn’t alter the monster’s reaction or attitude towards the caster. Furthermore, more intelligent monsters are likely to be terse and evasive, while less intelligent ones make inane comments. If a monster is friendly toward the caster, it may decide to do some favor or service for him or her. Mindless monsters, plant creatures and undead are unaffected by this spell.

Speak with Plants

Range: 20'

Cleric 4

Duration: 1 turn

The caster can comprehend and communicate with both normal plants and plant creatures. A normal plant’s sense of its surroundings is limited, so it won’t be able to give (or recognize) detailed descriptions of creatures or answer questions about events outside its immediate vicinity. The spell doesn’t alter the plant’s reaction or attitude towards the caster; however, normal plants will generally communicate freely with the caster, as they have nothing else of importance to do. Intelligent plant creatures are more likely to be terse and evasive, behaving in much the same fashion as any other monster. If a plant creature is friendly toward the caster, it may decide to do some favor or service for him or her. Normal plants are usually not animate, and thus cannot generally perform “services” other than to answer questions.

Speak with Dead

Range: 10'

Cleric 3

Duration: 3 rounds/level

This spell grants the semblance of life and intellect to a corpse, allowing it to answer several questions that the caster puts to it. The caster may ask one question per two caster levels. Unasked questions are wasted if the duration expires. The corpse’s knowledge is limited to what the creature knew during life, including the languages it spoke (if any). Answers are often brief, cryptic, or repetitive.

If the corpse has been subject to speak with dead within the past week, the new spell fails. The caster can cast this spell on a corpse that has been deceased for any amount of time, but the body must be mostly intact to be able to respond. A damaged corpse may be able to give partial answers or partially correct answers, but it must at least have a mouth in order to speak at all.

This spell does not let the caster actually speak to the person (whose soul has departed). It instead draws on the imprinted knowledge “stored” in the corpse. The partially animated body retains the imprint of the soul that once inhabited it, and thus it can speak with all the knowledge that the creature had while alive. The corpse, however, cannot learn new information. Indeed, it can’t even remember being questioned.

This spell does not affect a corpse that has been turned into an undead creature.

Spiritual Hammer

Range: 30'

Cleric 2

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell causes a warhammer made of pure force to spring into existence, attacking any foe chosen by the Cleric within range once per round. It deals 1d6 hit points of damage per strike, +1 point per three caster levels (maximum of +5). It uses the caster’s normal attack bonus, striking as a magical weapon, and thus can inflict damage upon creatures that are only hit by magic weapons. If the hammer goes beyond the spell range, the Cleric loses sight of it, or the caster ceases to direct it, the hammer disappears. The hammer cannot be attacked or harmed by physical attacks, but dispel magic, disintegrate, or a rod of cancellation will dispel it.

Sticks to Snakes

Range: 120'

Cleric 4

Duration: 6 turns

This spell transforms normal wooden sticks into 1d4 hit dice worth of normal (not giant) snakes per every four caster levels. (See the Monsters section for details on types of snakes.) The snakes follow the commands of the caster. When slain, dispelled, or the spell expires, the snakes return to their original stick form. Magical “sticks” such as enchanted staves cannot be affected.

Striking

Range: touch

Cleric 3

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell bestows upon one weapon the ability to deal 1d6 points of additional damage. This extra damage is applied on each successful attack for the duration of the spell. It provides no attack bonus, but if cast on a normal weapon, the spell allows monsters only hit by magical weapons to be affected; only the 1d6 points of magical damage applies to such a monster, however.

Telekinesis

Range: self

Magic User 5

Duration: 3 turns

This spell permits the caster to move objects or creatures by concentration alone. An object weighing no more than 50 pounds per caster level can be moved up to 20 feet per round. A creature can negate the effect on itself or an object it holds or has on its body with a successful save vs. Death Ray. In order to use this power, the caster must maintain concentration, moving no more than normal movement (no running), making no attacks and casting no spells. If concentration is lost (whether intentional or not), the power may be used again on the next round, but the subject of the effect is allowed a new saving throw.

Teleport

Range: self

Magic User 5

Duration: instantaneous

This spell instantly transports the caster to a designated destination, which may be as distant as 100 miles per caster level. Interplanar travel is not possible. The caster can bring along objects or creatures, not to exceed 300 pounds plus 100 pounds per level above 10th. The caster must be in contact with all objects and/or creatures to be transported (although creatures to be transported may be in contact with one another, with at least one of those creatures in contact with the caster). Unwilling creatures are allowed a saving throw vs. Spells to resist the spell, and the caster may need to make an attack roll to make contact with such a creature. Likewise, a successful save vs. Spells will prevent items in a creature's possession from being teleported.

The caster must have some clear idea of the location and layout of the destination. The clearer the mental image, the more likely it is that the teleportation will work. Areas of strong magical energy may make teleportation more hazardous or even impossible.

To determine the results of this spell, roll d% and consult the table below. Below the table is an explanation of the terms used.

Familiarity On Target Off Target Similar Area Mishap
Very familiar 01–97 98–99 100
Studied carefully 01–94 95–97 98–99 100
Seen casually 01–88 89–94 95–98 99–100
Viewed once 01–76 77–88 89–96 97–100
False destination 81–92 93–100

Familiarity: “Very familiar” is a place where the caster has been very often and feels at home. “Studied carefully” is a place the caster knows well, either because it can currently be seen, the caster has been there often, or other means (such as scrying) have been used to study the place for at least one hour. “Seen casually” is a place that the caster has seen more than once but with which he or she is not very familiar. “Viewed once” is a place that the caster has seen once, possibly using magic.

“False destination” is a place that does not truly exist or if the caster is teleporting to an otherwise familiar location that no longer exists as such or has been so completely altered as to no longer be familiar. When rolling on this row, use 1d20+80.

On Target: The caster appears exactly where desired.

Off Target: The caster appears safely a random distance away from the destination in a random direction. Distance off target is 1d10x1d10% of the distance that was to be traveled. The direction off target is determined randomly.

Similar Area: The caster winds up in an area that’s visually or thematically similar to the target area. This means that the caster appears in the closest similar place within range. If no such area exists within the spell’s range, the spell simply fails instead.

Mishap: The caster and anyone else teleporting with the caster have gotten “scrambled.” Each takes 1d10 points of damage; then reroll on the chart to see where they wind up. For these rerolls, roll 1d20+80. Each time “Mishap” comes up, the characters take more damage and must reroll.

True Seeing

Range: touch

Cleric 5

Duration: 1 round/level

This spell confers on the target the ability to see all things as they actually are. The subject sees through normal and magical darkness, notices secret doors, sees the exact locations of displaced creatures or objects, sees through normal or magical disguises, sees invisible creatures or objects normally, sees through illusions, and sees the true form of polymorphed, changed, or transmuted things. The range of true seeing conferred is 120 feet.

True seeing, however, does not penetrate solid objects. It in no way confers X-ray vision or its equivalent. It does not negate concealment, including that caused by fog and the like. In addition, the spell effects cannot be further enhanced with known magic, so one cannot use true seeing through a crystal ball or in conjunction with clairvoyance.

Ventriloquism

Range: 60'

Magic User 1

Duration: 1 turn/level

This spell allows the caster to cause his or her voice to sound from someplace else within range, for example, from a dark alcove or statue.

Wall of Fire

Range: 180'

Cleric 5, Magic-User 4

Duration: 1 round/level

(or special)

An immobile, blazing curtain of shimmering violet fire springs into existence. One side of the wall, selected by the caster, sends forth waves of heat, dealing 2d4 points of fire damage to creatures within 10 feet and 1d4 points of fire damage to those beyond 10 feet but within 20 feet. The wall deals this damage when it appears and on the caster's turn each round to all creatures in the area. In addition, the wall deals 2d6 points +1 point per caster level of fire damage to any creature passing through it. The wall deals double damage to undead creatures.

The wall is either a sheet of flame up to 20' in length per caster level, or a ring with a radius up to 5' per caster level. The caster may choose to make the wall smaller if desired. The wall may be up to 20' tall (as desired by the caster and/or constrained by the ceiling).

If the caster evokes the wall so that it appears where creatures are, each creature takes damage as if passing through the wall; a save vs. Spells is allowed, with success indicating that damage is rolled as if the creature is within 10' of the wall.

The caster may choose to maintain the spell indefinitely (within reasonable limits of endurance) by concentration, or may cast it with the standard duration of 1 round per level, at his or her option.

Wall of Iron

Range: 90'

Magic User 6

Duration: permanent

This spell causes a flat, vertical iron wall to spring into being. The wall is composed of up to one 10'x10' square section, one inch thick, per caster level. If the caster so desires, the wall can bond itself into any surrounding nonliving material if its area is sufficient to do so. The wall cannot be conjured so that it occupies the same space as a creature or another object. The wall must always be a flat plane, though the edges can be shaped to fit the available space, and it must always be conjured in contact with the ground.

The caster can increase the thickness of the wall with a proportionate reduction in the area; for example, doubling the thickness halves the area. The wall may not be made less than one inch thick. The caster can create the wall vertically resting on a flat surface but not attached to the surface, so that it can be tipped over to fall on and crush creatures beneath it. The wall is 50% likely to tip in either direction if left un-pushed. Creatures can push the wall in one direction rather than letting it fall randomly. A creature with 13 Strength (or 4 or more Hit Dice) can push the wall over; or several creatures can work together to do so. (If the optional Ability Roll rule is being used, a Strength roll at -3 is sufficient to topple the wall.) Creatures with room to flee the falling wall may do so by making successful saves vs. Death Ray (with Dexterity bonus added). Any creature of Ogre-size or smaller that fails the save takes 10d6 points of damage. The wall cannot crush larger creatures.

Like any iron wall, this wall is subject to rust, perforation, and other natural phenomena.

Wall of Stone

Range: 15' per level

Magic User 5

Duration: permanent

This spell creates a wall of rock that merges into adjoining rock surfaces. The wall is composed of up to one 10'x10' square section, 1' thick, per caster level. The caster can double the wall’s area by halving its thickness. The wall cannot be conjured so that it occupies the same space as a creature or another object.

The caster can create a wall of stone in almost any shape he or she desires. The wall created need not be vertical, nor rest upon any firm foundation; however, it must merge with and be solidly supported by existing stone. It can be used to bridge a chasm, for instance, or as a ramp. For this use, if the span is more than 20 feet, the wall must be arched and buttressed, reducing the spell’s area by half. The wall can also be crudely shaped to create crenelations, battlements, and so forth by similarly reducing the area.

Like any other stone wall, this one can be destroyed by a disintegrate spell or by normal means such as breaking and chipping.

It is possible, but difficult, to trap mobile opponents within or under a wall of stone, provided the wall is shaped so it can hold the creatures. Creatures can avoid entrapment with successful saves vs. Death Ray.

Water Breathing

Range: touch

Magic User 3

Duration: 2 hours/level

The affected creatures can breathe water freely. Divide the duration evenly among all the creatures the caster touches. The spell does not make creatures unable to breathe air.

Web

Range: 10' per level

Magic User 2

Duration: 2 turns/level

Web creates a many-layered mass of strong, sticky strands, filling a volume of 8,000 cubic feet (equivalent to eight 10'x10'x10' cubes). The strands are similar to spider webs but far larger and tougher. These masses must be anchored to two or more solid and diametrically opposed points or else the web collapses upon itself and disappears; within this limitation, the caster may choose any arrangement of webs he or she wishes, up to the limit of range and the given 8,000 cubic foot volume. The caster may choose to create a smaller volume if he or she wishes. Creatures caught within a web become entangled among the gluey fibers. Attacking a creature in a web won’t cause the attacker to become entangled, but moving through the affected area will.

Anyone in the area of effect when the spell is cast must make a save vs. Death Ray. If this save succeeds, the creature is entangled, but not prevented from moving, though moving is reduced to one-half normal movement rate. Such entangled creatures may not cast spells or perform normal attacks; whether other actions are possible is left to the GM to decide. Once an entangled creature leaves the area of effect of the web, it will be able to act normally again.

If the save fails, the creature is entangled and can’t move or perform any other physical action. Speech remains possible, however. Creatures with Strength of 13 or higher (or 4 or more hit dice) may be able to break loose, however; each round, such creatures are allowed another save vs. Death Ray with results as given above. Creatures failing the initial save and having Strength of 12 or less (or fewer than 4 hit dice) are trapped until the duration expires or the webs are otherwise removed.

The strands of a web spell are flammable. Any fire can set the webs alight and burn away a 10' cube in 1 round; the fire will spread to adjacent 10' cubes each round until all the webbing is consumed (or the fire is put out by some means). All creatures within flaming webs take 2d4 points of fire damage from the flames, but if they survive they are completely free afterwards.

Wizard Eye

Range: 240'

Magic User 4

Duration: 6 turns

With this spell the caster creates an invisible magical “eye” through which he or she can see. The eye has Darkvision, but otherwise sees exactly as the caster would. It can be created in any place the caster can see, up to a range of 240' away, and thereafter can move at a rate of 40' per round as directed by the caster. The eye will not move more than 240' feet away from the caster under any circumstances. The eye cannot pass through solid objects, but as it is exactly the size of a normal human's eye, it can pass through holes as small as 1 inch in diameter. The caster must concentrate to use the eye.

Wizard Lock

Range: 20'

Magic User 2

Duration: permanent

A wizard lock spell cast upon a door, chest, or portal magically locks it. The caster can freely pass his or her own wizard lock without affecting it, as can any Magic-User 3 or more levels higher than the caster of the wizard lock; otherwise, a door or object secured with this spell can be opened only by breaking in or with a successful dispel magic or knock spell.

Word of Recall

Range: self (special)

Cleric 6

Duration: instantaneous

Word of recall teleports the caster instantly back to his or her sanctuary when a single word is uttered. The caster must designate the sanctuary when he or she prepares the spell, and it must be a very familiar place. The actual point of arrival is a designated area no larger than 10 feet by 10 feet. The caster can be transported any distance within a plane but cannot travel between planes. The caster can bring along objects or creatures, not to exceed 300 pounds plus 100 pounds per level above 10th. The caster must be in contact with all objects and/or creatures to be transported (although creatures to be transported may be in contact with one another, with at least one of those creatures in contact with the caster).

An unwilling creature can’t be teleported by word of recall. Likewise, a creature’s save vs. Spells prevents items in its possession from being teleported.

PART 4: THE ADVENTURE

Time and Scale

Time in the dungeon is measured in game turns, which are (approximately) 10 minutes long. When combat begins, the time scale changes to combat rounds, which are (approximately) 10 seconds long. Thus, there are 60 combat rounds per game turn.

Distances in the dungeon are measured in feet. Outdoors, change all distance measurements (movement, range, etc.) to yards (so 100' becomes 100 yards) but area of effect measurements (for spells, for instance) normally remain in feet.

Dungeon Adventures

Carrying Capacity

Normal Human, Elven and Dwarvish player characters are able to carry up to 60 pounds and still be considered lightly loaded, or up to 150 pounds and be considered heavily loaded. Halflings may carry up to 50 pounds and be considered lightly loaded, or up to 100 pounds and be heavily loaded. Note that armor for Halfling characters is about one-quarter as heavy as armor for the other races.

These figures are affected by Strength; each +1 of Strength bonus adds 10% to the capacity of the character, while each -1 deducts 20%. Thus, carrying capacities for normal characters are as shown below (rounded to the nearest 5 pounds for convenience):

Dwarf, Elf, Human Halfling
Strength Light Load Heavy Load Light Load Heavy Load
3 25 60 20 40
4-5 35 90 30 60
6-8 50 120 40 80
9-12 60 150 50 100
13-15 65 165 55 110
16-17 70 180 60 120
18 80 195 65 130

The carrying capacities of various domesticated animals are given in the Monsters section, in the entry for each type of animal.

Movement and Encumbrance

The movement rate of a character or creature is expressed as the number of feet it can move per combat round. The normal player character races can all move 40' per round. When exploring a dungeon, time is expressed in turns, as explained above; normal movement per turn is 3 times the movement rate per round.

This may seem slow, but this rate of movement includes such things as drawing maps, watching out for traps and monsters (though they may still surprise the party), etc. In a combat situation, on the other hand, everyone is moving around swiftly, and such things as drawing maps are not important.

A character's movement rate is adjusted by his or her Encumbrance (the load he or she is carrying) as follows:

Armor Type Lightly Loaded Heavily Loaded
No Armor or Magic Leather 40' 30'
Leather Armor or Magic Metal 30' 20'
Metal Armor 20' 10'

Count the weight of armor worn when calculating encumbrance, because armor counts both for bulk and restrictiveness as well as for weight. Magic armor counts for its full weight but is not as bulky and restrictive as normal armor, thus granting an improved movement rate.

Mapping

In any dungeon expedition, making maps is important. Generally one player will do this, drawing a map on graph paper as the Game Master describes each room or corridor. Absolute accuracy is usually not possible; the main thing is to ensure that the party can find its way back out of the dungeon.

Light

A torch or lantern will provide light covering a 30' radius; dim light will extend about 20' further. Normal torches burn for 1d4+4 turns, while a flask of oil in a lantern will burn for 18+1d6 turns. A candle will shed light over a 5' radius, with dim light extending 5' further. In general, taper candles such as are used for illumination will burn about 3 turns per inch of height.

Darkvision

Some character races, and almost all monsters, have Darkvision. This gives them the ability to see even in total darkness. Darkvision is black and white only but otherwise like normal sight. Darkvision does not grant one the ability to see in magical darkness. The range of Darkvision is typically either 30' or 60'; if not given for a particular creature, assume the 60' range.

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Darkvision is totally ineffective in any light greater than moonlight.

Doors

A stuck door can be opened on a roll of 1 on 1d6; add the character's Strength bonus to the range, so that a character with a bonus of +2 can open a stuck door on a roll of 1-3 on 1d6.

Locked doors can be forced by rolling the same range, but on 1d10. Metal bars can sometimes be bent on a roll of this range on 1d20.

A careful character might choose to listen at a door before opening it. Thieves have a special ability, Listen, which should be applied if the listener is a Thief. For other characters, the GM rolls 1d6, with 1 indicating success. Sounds heard might include voices, footsteps, or any other sound the GM considers appropriate. Of course, the room beyond the door might really be silent; thus, the Game Master must make the roll, so that a roll of 1 in such a case will not give anything away to the players.

Traps

Dungeons and ruins frequently contain traps, including spear-throwers, covered pits, etc. The GM will decide what is required to trigger a trap, and what happens when the trap is triggered. (Some guidance on this is provided in the Game Master section later in this book.) In general, there will be some way to avoid or reduce the effect of the trap being sprung. For instance, a save vs. Death Ray is often used to avoid falling into a covered pit (with Dexterity bonus added), while spear-throwers, automated crossbows, and the like are sometimes treated as if they were monsters (attacking vs. the victim's Armor Class at some given attack bonus).

Normal characters have a chance equal to a roll of 1 on 1d6 to detect a trap if a search for one is made. Note that this is about a 16.7% chance; Thieves have a special ability to find and remove traps, which supersedes this roll, as does the stonework trap-finding ability of Dwarves. A Dwarven Thief is a special case; apply whichever trap-detection ability is higher. In all cases, a search for traps takes at least a turn per 10' square area. A single character may only effectively search a given area for traps once, even if the character has more than one trap-detection roll “type” allowed (such as the Dwarven Thief above).

Trap detection may not be allowed if the trap is purely magical in nature; on the other hand, in such cases Magic-Users and/or Clerics may be able to detect magical traps at the given 1 in 1d6 chance, at the Game Master's option.

Secret Doors

Under normal conditions, searching for secret doors takes one turn per character per 10' of wall searched. A secret door is found on a roll of 1 on 1d6; characters with 15 or higher Intelligence succeed on a roll of 1-2. Also, as noted previously, Elves add 1 to the range automatically, such that an Elf discovers secret doors on a 1-2 on 1d6, or 1-3 if the Elf has an Intelligence of 15 or higher. The GM may create secret doors that are more difficult (or easier) to detect at his or her option.

Multiple characters searching for secret doors ensures that any such will eventually be found; however, if the first and second searchers fail, the next searcher must take two turns to search, and all subsequent searches of the area require an hour.

Note that finding a secret door does not grant understanding of how it works. The GM may require additional rolls or other actions to be taken before the door can be opened.

Dungeon Survival

As described in the Equipment section, above, normal characters must consume one day's worth of rations (or equivalent food) and at least one quart of water per day.

Failure to consume enough food does not significantly affect a character for the first two days, after which he or she loses 1 hit point per day. Furthermore, at that point the character loses the ability to heal wounds normally, though magic will still work. Eating enough food for a day (over the course of about a day, not all at once) restores the ability to heal, and the character will recover lost hit points at the normal rate.

Inadequate water affects characters more swiftly; after a single day without adequate water, the character loses 1d4 hit points, and will lose an additional 1d4 hit points per day thereafter; healing ability is lost when the first die of damage is rolled.

Wilderness Adventures

Wilderness Movement Rates

Movement rates when traveling in the wilderness are related directly to encounter movement rates, as shown on the table below:

Encounter Movement (Feet per Round) Wilderness Movement (Miles per Day)
10' 6
20' 12
30' 18
40' 24
50' 30
60' 36
70' 42
80' 48
90' 54
100' 60
110' 66
120' 72

Naturally, any group traveling together moves at the rate of the slowest member.

Overland Travel

The movement rates shown on the table above are figured based on an 8 hour day of travel through open, clear terrain. The terrain type will alter the rate somewhat, as shown on this table:

Terrain Adjustment
Jungle, Mountains, Swamp x1/3
Desert, Forest, Hills x2/3
Clear, Plains, Trail x1
Road (Paved) x1 1/3

Characters may choose to perform a forced march, traveling 12 hours per day. If this is done, add an additional 50% to the distance traveled. Each day of forced march performed after the first inflicts 1d6 damage on the characters (and their animals, if any). A save vs. Death Ray with Constitution bonus applied is allowed to avoid this damage, but after this save is failed once, it is not rolled again for that character or creature. A day spent resting “restarts” the progression.

Waterborne Travel

Travel by water may be done in a variety of boats or ships; see the table in the Vehicles section for details. Travel distances are based on a 12 hour day of travel, rather than the usual 8 hours per day given above. Note that sailed ships may travel 24 hours per day (if a qualified navigator is aboard), and so may be able to cover twice the normal distance per day of travel. This is in addition to the multiplier given below. If the ship stops each night, as is done by some vessels traveling along a coastline as well as those vessels having less than the minimum number of regular crewmen on board, the two-times multiplier does not apply.

Movement of sailed ships varies depending on weather conditions, as shown on the following table. Sailing movement modifiers shown apply when sailing with the wind; sailing against the wind involves tacking (called “zigzagging” by landlubbers) which reduces movement rates as indicated on the table.

d12 Wind Direction
1 Northerly
2 Northeasterly
3 Easterly
4 Southeasterly
5 Southerly
6 Southwesterly
7 Westerly
8 Northwesterly
9-12 Prevailing wind direction for this locale
d% Wind Conditions Sailing Tacking
01-05 Becalmed x0 x0
06-13 Very Light Breeze x1/3 x0
14-25 Light Breeze x1/2 x1/3
26-40 Moderate Breeze x2/3 x1/3
41-70 Average Winds x1 x1/2
71-85 Strong Winds x1 1/3 x2/3
86-96 Very Strong Winds x1 1/2 x0
97-00 Gale x2 x0

Notes:

Becalmed: Sailing ships cannot move. Oared ships may move at the given rowing movement rate.

Very Strong Winds: Sailing against the wind (tacking) is not possible.

Gale: Sailing against the wind is not possible, and ships exposed to a gale may be damaged or sunk; apply 2d8 points of damage to any such ship, per hour sailed.

Traveling by Air

When traveling by air, overland movement rates are doubled, and all terrain effects are ignored. Most winged creatures must maintain at least one-third normal forward movement in order to remain airborne; however, devices such as flying carpets generally do not have this limitation.

Becoming Lost

Adventurers following roads, trails, rivers, streams, or other obvious landmarks are unlikely to become lost; however, when the party strikes out into trackless forest, windblown desert, etc., they may become lost. Secretly roll a save vs. Death Ray, adjusted by the Wisdom of the party leader (i.e., whichever player character seems to be leading). (Alternately, an Ability Roll against Wisdom may be rolled, if that optional rule is in use.) The GM must determine the effects of a failed roll.

Retainers, Specialists and Mercenaries

Player characters will sometimes want or need to hire NPCs (Non-Player Characters) to work for them. There are several categories of NPCs available for hire, as follows:

Retainers

A retainer is a close associate of his employer. Retainers are hired for a share of treasure (typically at least 15% of the employer's income) plus support costs (weapons, armor, rations, and basic equipment provided by the employer). Retainers are typically very loyal and are willing to take reasonable risks; in particular, they are the only sort of hireling who will generally accompany a player character into a dungeon, lair, or ruin.

Hiring a retainer is more involved than hiring other NPCs. First, the player character must advertise for a retainer, typically by hiring a crier, posting notices in public places, or asking (and possibly paying) NPCs such as innkeepers or taverners to direct potential retainers to the player character. It is up to the Game Master to rule on what must be done, and how successful these activities are.

If the player character is successful, one or more NPCs will present themselves to be interviewed. The Game Master should play out the interview with the player, and after all offers have been made and all questions asked, a reaction roll should be made. To check the potential retainer's reaction, the Game Master rolls 2d6 and adds the player character's Charisma bonus. In addition, the Game Master may apply any adjustments he or she feels are appropriate (a bonus of +1 for higher-than-average pay or the offer of a magic item such as a sword +1, or a penalty if the player character offers poor terms). The roll is read as follows:

Adjusted Die Roll Result
2 or less Refusal, -1 on further rolls
3-5 Refusal
6-8 Try again
9-11 Acceptance
12 or more Acceptance, +1 to Loyalty

Refusal, -1 on further rolls means that all further reaction rolls made toward that player character in the given town or region will be at a penalty of -1 due to unkind words said by the NPC to his fellows. If the player character tries again in a different town, the penalty does not apply.

If a Try again result is rolled, the potential retainer is reluctant, and needs more convincing; the player character must “sweeten” the deal in order to get an additional roll, such as by offering more pay, a magic item, etc. If the player character makes no better offer, treat Try again as a Refusal result.

Loyalty: All retainers have a Loyalty score, which is generally 7 plus the employer's Charisma bonus (or penalty). The Loyalty score is used just as the Morale score of monsters or mercenaries is used.

If a Loyalty check roll made in combat is a natural 2, the Loyalty of the retainer increases by +1 point. Note that a Loyalty of 12 is fanatical… the retainer will do virtually anything the player character asks, and never flee in combat. However, the Game Master should still apply penalties when the player character instructs the retainer to do something which appears very risky, making a failed check possible.

In addition, the Game Master should roll a Loyalty check for each retainer at the end of each adventure, after treasure is divided, to determine if the retainer will remain with the player character. The GM may apply adjustments to this roll, probably no more than two points plus or minus, if the retainer is particularly well or poorly paid.

Maximum Number of Retainers: A player character may hire at most 4 retainers, adjusted by the character's Charisma bonus or penalty. Any attempts to hire more than this number of retainers will be met with automatic refusals.

Level of Retainers: Normally, potential retainers will be one-half the level of the employer (or less). So, a first level character cannot hire retainers, second level PCs can only hire first level characters, and so on. Of course, there is no way for the retainers to directly know the level of the PC employer, nor for the employer to know the level of the potential retainer; but the Game Master should usually enforce this rule for purposes of game balance. It shouldn't be surprising that first level characters can't hire retainers, as they have no reputation to speak of yet.

Experience for Retainers: Unlike other hired NPCs, retainers do gain experience just as other adventurers do; however, as they are under the command of a player character, only one-half of a share of XP is allocated to each retainer. See Character Advancement, below, for an example.

Specialists

Specialists are NPCs who may be hired by player characters to perform various tasks. Specialists do not go on adventures or otherwise risk their lives fighting monsters, disarming traps, or any of the other dangerous things player characters and retainers may do. Rather, specialists perform services the player characters usually can't perform for themselves, like designing and erecting castles, training animals, or operating ships.

A player character is limited in the number of specialists he or she can hire only by the amount of money they cost; Charisma does not affect this.

Alchemist: 1,000 gp per month.These characters are generally hired for one of two reasons: to make potions, or to assist a Magic-User with magical research.

An alchemist can produce a potion, given the required materials and a sample or a written formula for the potion, in the same time and for the same cost as a Magic-User. They may also research new potions, but at twice the cost in time and materials as a Magic-User.

Alternately, a Magic-User seeking to create certain magic items may employ an alchemist as an assistant. In this case, the alchemist adds 15% to the Magic-User's chance of success.

Animal Trainer: 250 to 750 gp per month. Characters wishing to ride hippogriffs or employ carnivorous apes as guards will need the assistance of an animal trainer. The lowest cost above is for an average animal trainer, able to train one type of “normal” animal such as carnivorous apes; those able to train more than one sort of animal, or to train monstrous creatures such as hippogriffs, are more expensive to hire. The Game Master must decide how long it takes to train an animal; in some cases, animal training may take years, a fact the player characters may find inconvenient as well as expensive. A single animal trainer can train and manage no more than 5 animals at a time, though in most cases once an animal is fully trained, if it is put into service right away the animal trainer won't be needed to handle it any longer.

Armorer (or Weaponsmith): 100 to 500 gp per month. Characters hiring mercenaries, or having armed and armored followers to take care of, will need the services of an armorer. In general, for every 50 Fighters employed, one armorer is required to care for their gear. The armorer's equipment is not included in the costs given above, but the cost to maintain his apprentices is included; most such characters will have 1d4 apprentices assisting.

Higher priced armorers or weaponsmiths may be hired to assist in making magic weapons or armor; in this case, the character hired will be a specialist, an expert in making one particular type of armor or weapon, and will command a higher price (as shown above). Such characters will rarely agree to do the mundane work of maintaining weapons and armor for a military unit.

Engineer: 750 gp per month. Any player character wishing to build a fortress, a ship, or any other mundane construction will need an engineer. Large projects may require several engineers, at the GM's option.

Savant: 1,500 gp per month. Savants are experts in ancient and obscure knowledge. Many savants have particular interests in very limited or focused areas (for example, “Elven migrations of the 2nd age”), but even these will know or have access to a lot of facts. The listed cost is the minimum required to maintain a savant with his library, collections, etc. If the savant's patron asks a difficult question, there may be additional costs for materials or research to answer it.

Ship's Crew: Special. A crew for a waterborne vessel involves several types of characters. At the very least, a complement of sailors and a Captain are needed; rowers will be needed aboard galleys, and a Navigator is required aboard ships going out of sight of land.

Costs per month for each sort of character are given below:

Seaman Type Cost
Captain 300 gp
Navigator 200 gp
Sailor 10 gp
Rower 3 gp

In general, all such characters are normal men, and are not armored; they will usually be armed with clubs, daggers, or shortswords. Player characters with appropriate backgrounds may act as Captain, but unless experienced as a ship's captain, they will have difficulty commanding respect from the regular sailors (lower the Morale of such regular sailors by -2 if led by an inexperienced Captain).

Mercenaries

Mercenaries are hired warriors. They are generally hired in units as small as platoons: 32 to 48 Fighters, divided into two to four squads of soldiers; each squad is led by a corporal, while the platoon is led by a lieutenant plus a sergeant. Platoons are joined together into companies, each generally consisting of two to five platoons and led by a captain with a sergeant as his assistant (called a first sergeant).

As mercenaries are almost always veteran troops, the average mercenary is a 1st level Fighter; 10% of corporals and 50% of sergeants are 2nd level. A mercenary lieutenant will generally be 2nd level, while a captain will be 2nd to 4th level and his first sergeant will be 2nd or 3rd level. Larger mercenary units will usually be beyond the reach of player characters until they have reached fairly high levels, and are left to the Game Master to detail.

Mercenaries will virtually never go into a dungeon, lair, or ruin, at least until it has been fully cleared. Rather, they are used in outdoor military engagements; high level player characters may hire mercenaries to defend or help defend their castles or other holdings.

Mercenaries housed in a player character's stronghold require 200 square feet each but cost 25% less per month, as this is covered by their room and board. (Elven mercenaries, however, require 500 square feet of space each in order to reduce their pay, as they demand better living conditions.) See the Stronghold section for more details.

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Statistics are given below for the most common sorts of mercenaries; the statistics are for first level characters, and should be adjusted when higher level characters are indicated (as given above). In particular, multiply the given cost of each mercenary by his or her level. Listed costs are in gold pieces per month.

Character Advancement

Experience Points (XP)

Experience points are given for monsters defeated, and for other challenges as the GM sees fit. The following table provides XP values for monsters. Where a monster has both a character level and hit dice given, use the larger value as the monster's level. Non-combat challenges may be assigned a level, or a flat XP value assigned, as the GM wishes.

If asterisks appear after the hit dice listing for a monster, each asterisk adds the special ability bonus once; for example, a creature with a hit dice figure of 2** is worth 125 XP.

For monsters with more than 25 hit dice, add 750 XP to the XP Value and 25 XP to the Special Ability Bonus per additional hit die.

NPCs should be treated as monsters of a number of hit dice equivalent to the character's level. Add a special ability bonus for Clerics and Magic-Users if they are able to cast useful spells during the encounter.

After tallying the XP earned in a given adventure, the amount should be divided by the number of adventurers. As described above, each retainer should receive a one-half share; so a group with four player characters and a retainer is counted as having 4½ members. If 2,000 XP are earned by this group, one share is 444 XP, and the retainer receives 222 XP.

No character may advance more than one level due to the experience points from a single adventure. For example, Barthal the Thief is 1st level and has 1,000 XP before going on an adventure; during the adventure, he earns 2,000 more XP (an amazing feat). This would make his total 3,000 XP, and he would be a 3rd level Thief. This is not allowed; instead, he advances to 2,499 XP, one short of the amount required for 3rd level, and starts his next adventure at 2nd level.

Monster Hit Dice XP Value Special Ability Bonus
less than 1 10 3
1 25 12
2 75 25
3 145 30
4 240 40
5 360 45
6 500 55
7 670 65
8 875 70
9 1,075 75
10 1,300 90
11 1,575 95
12 1,875 100
13 2,175 110
14 2,500 115
15 2,850 125
16 3,250 135
17 3,600 145
18 4,000 160
19 4,500 175
20 5,250 200
21 6,000 225
22 6,750 250
23 7,500 275
24 8,250 300
25 9,000 325

PART 5: THE ENCOUNTER

I raised my shield to fend off one of the monsters, and hewed at another with my sword, but I missed my first swing. Morningstar swung at one of the monsters and struck it, but her sword did the bony thing little harm. I saw that Apoqulis still stood by the door; of Barthal there was no sign. Fortunately, Apoqulis also had a torch.

Apoqulis raised his holy symbol and called in a loud voice, “In the name of Tah, begone!” To my surprise, several of the monsters turned as if afraid and ran out the door, disappearing into the gloom. Unfortunately this left quite a few of them still in the room.

Even as I saw all this I continued to hack at the monsters. It took two good blows to down the first one; it appeared that Morningstar was having similar trouble with the monsters. Then one of the skeletons hit her, just a minor wound, but still I felt good that I had invested my part of the proceeds of our last excursion in a suit of plate mail armor; I was shrugging off blows that would have harmed me were I still wearing chain mail.

To my surprise, I saw Apoqulis down one of the monsters in a single blow, then do the same to another in his very next strike. His mace seemed to be much more effective against the monsters than our swords. As I finally managed to down a second skeleton, I heard a high-pitched yell… it was Barthal, a little ways down the hallway, and he was throwing something.

There was a sound of glass breaking, and I felt a splash of water on my face. Several of the skeletons began to smoke, and then one of them fell in a heap. Holy water, I decided, but I didn't have time to think about it. I just kept hacking at the skeletons.

By the time they were all gone, I had taken a wound, and Morningstar had taken a second. We had one potion of healing left of those that Apoqulis' temple had given us; Morningstar told me to drink it, but I could tell she was in worse shape than I, so I insisted she take it.

Then we turned back to the sarcophagus…

Order of Play

When the party of adventurers comes in contact with potential enemies, time shifts to combat rounds (10 seconds long, as described previously). Before beginning combat, surprise is checked (see below). Unsurprised characters then roll for Initiative, and act in order of the rolls (again, as described below).

Surprise

When surprise is possible, roll 1d6 for each side which might be surprised; most normal characters are surprised on a roll of 1-2. Surprised characters are unable to act for one round. Characters or creatures which are well hidden and prepared to perform an ambush surprise on a roll of 1-4 on 1d6. Some characters or creatures (such as Elves) are described as being less likely to be surprised; reduce the range by 1 for such creatures.

For example: Darion the Human Fighter and Morningstar the Elven Fighter/Magic-User open a door and come face-to-face with a party of goblins. The GM rolls 1d6 for the goblins; on a 1-2 they are all surprised. Then the GM rolls 1d6 for Darion and Morningstar. If the roll is a 1, both of them are surprised; if the roll is a 2, only Darion is surprised. If the roll is 3 or more, neither of them are surprised.

Surprised characters or creatures stand flat-footed for one round. They still defend themselves, so there is no penalty to Armor Class, but they cannot move nor attack during the round of surprise.

Monster Reactions

When a group of player characters meet one or more monsters, it's important to know how the monsters will react to the party. In many cases, the reaction of the monster or monsters is obvious… zombies guarding a tomb will virtually always attack intruders, for example.

In cases where the reaction of the monsters to the party is not obvious, a reaction roll may be made. The Game Master rolls 2d6, adding the Charisma bonus of the “lead” character (or applying his or her Charisma penalty) along with any other adjustments he or she feels are reasonable, and consults the table below:

Reaction Roll Table

Adjusted Die Roll Result
2 or less Immediate Attack
3-7 Unfavorable
8-11 Favorable
12 or more Very Favorable

A result of 2 or less means that the player characters have so offended the monsters that they attack immediately. An Unfavorable result means that the monsters do not like the player characters, and will attack if they may reasonably do so. A Favorable result simply means that the monsters will consider letting the player characters live if they choose to parley; it does not necessarily mean that the monsters like the player characters. A Very Favorable result means that the monsters (or perhaps only the monster leader) do, in fact, like the player characters; this does not mean that the monsters will just hand over their treasure, but it does indicate that they may choose to cooperate with the player characters in mutually beneficial ways.

As always, interpreting the results of this roll is left to the GM, who may choose to alter the result if he or she believes a different result would be more enjoyable to play out than the one rolled.

Initiative

Each round, 1d6 is rolled for Initiative for each character or monster. This roll is adjusted by the character's Dexterity bonus. High numbers act first. Any characters/monsters with equal numbers act simultaneously. The GM may make single rolls for groups of identical monsters at his or her option.

As the GM counts down the Initiative numbers, each character or monster may act on his or her number. If desired, a combatant can choose to wait until a later number to act. If a player states that he or she is waiting for another character or monster to act, then the player character's action takes place on the same Initiative number as the creature he or she is waiting for. In this case, the player character's action is simultaneous with the creature waited for, just as if they had rolled the same number.

A character using a weapon with a long reach (spears, for instance) may choose to attack a closing opponent on the closing opponent's number and thus attack simultaneously with the opponent, even if the character rolled lower for Initiative.

Combat

Each character or creature involved in combat may move, if desired, up to its encounter movement distance, and then attack, if any opponent is in range, when its Initiative number comes up. After attacking, a character or creature may not move again until the next round.

Opponents more than 5' apart may move freely, but once two opposing figures are within 5' of each other, they are “engaged” and must abide by the rules under Defensive Movement, below.

Running

Characters may choose to run; a running character is not normally allowed to attack (but see Charging, below). Running characters can move at double their normal encounter movement rate. Characters are allowed to run a number of rounds equal to 2 times the character's Constitution, after which they are exhausted and may only walk (at the normal encounter rate). For monsters not having a given Constitution, allow the monster to run for 24 rounds. Exhausted characters or creatures must rest for at least a turn before running again.

Maneuverability

The following rules may be considered optional. They are hardly needed for most dungeon adventures, but will add measurably to combat situations in the wilderness, especially in waterborne combat situations or when some or all combatants are flying.

Characters, creatures, and vehicles of various sorts have a turning distance. This is given as a distance in feet in parentheses after their movement rate, and it determines how far they must move between facing changes when moving about in combat.

All normal player characters, and in fact most moderately sized creatures which walk on the ground, have a turning distance of 5'. If no turning distance is given for a creature, assume that it is 5'.

In general, a facing change is any turn of up to 90º (a right-angle turn); on a square-gridded map, this means turning to face directly to the right or left of the figure's current facing. A half-turn (45º) still counts as a full facing change. If using hexes, “diagonal” movement is not available, so a facing change is the 60º turn to face toward the hex-side to the right or left of the current facing.

There are a few exceptions to this rule:

First, any creature that does not move away from its starting position during the combat round may make as many facing changes as desired (though circumstances, such as trying to turn a horse around in a narrow corridor, may prevent this).

Incorporeal flying creatures, such as spectres, can turn freely at any point while moving.

Creatures which are running (moving at double speed) may not make facing changes of more than 60º, and their turning distance increases by 10' (or, if it is 5' normally, it increases to 10').

Also, most creatures can shift one space laterally while preserving their facing (this is called “sidestepping”), but this may only be done when moving at normal (“walking”) speed, not at fast (“running”) speed. “One space” means either 5' or 10', depending on the map or board being used.

Climbing and Diving

For battles involving three dimensions, each creature or vehicle has an altitude (when flying) or depth (underwater). For air or sea battles, at least one of the creatures or vehicles should start at an altitude/depth of 0, and a new 0 level can be established at any time, to simplify play, by adjusting the altitudes of each creature or vehicle.

A winged flier can gain up to 10' of altitude after moving forward by the distance shown for its maneuverability class, and can dive (lose altitude in a controlled fashion) at up to twice the normal movement rate; if the creature does not move horizontally by at least one-third its normal speed, it will stall, being forced to dive at maximum rate for one round. Floating creatures or vehicles (balloons, fly spell, flying carpets, etc.) can climb vertically without horizontal motion up to half the normal movement rate, but such “floaters” can only descend at the normal movement rate, unless they have lost the ability to float entirely.

Charging

Under some circumstances, characters or creatures may be allowed to attack after a running move. This is called a charge, and some specific limitations apply. First, the charging character or creature must move at least 10 feet, and may move up to double his or her normal movement rate, as given above. The movement must be in a more or less straight line toward the intended target, and the path to the target must be reasonably clear. Finally, the attacker must be using a weapon such as a spear, lance, or pole arm which is suitable for use while charging. Certain monsters, especially including those with horns, are able to use natural attacks when charging. If the attacker does not have line of sight to the opponent at the start of the charge, that opponent can’t be charged.

The attack made after the charge is made at +2 on the attack roll. The charging character or creature takes a -2 penalty to Armor Class for the remainder of the round. If the attack hits, it does double damage.

Set Weapon Against Charge: Spears, pole arms, and certain other piercing weapons deal double damage when “set” (braced against the ground or floor) and used against a charging creature. For this to be done, the character or creature being charged must have equal or better Initiative; this counts as holding an action: both attacker and defender act on the attacker's Initiative number and are therefore simultaneous.

Evasion and Pursuit

Sometimes a party of adventurers will want nothing more than to avoid a group of monsters (or sometimes, it's the monsters avoiding the adventurers). If one group is surprised, and the other is not, the unsurprised group may be able to escape automatically (unless something prevents them from making an exit).

Otherwise, the characters wanting to flee begin doing so on their Initiative numbers. The GM may easily play out the pursuit, following along on his or her map (note that the players can't draw maps while they run headlong through the dungeon or wilderness area). Any time a character must pass through a doorway, make a hard turn, etc., the GM may require a saving throw vs. Death Ray (with Dexterity bonus added); if the save is failed, the character has fallen at that point and moves no further that round; he or she may stand up and make a full move on his or her Initiative number in the next round.

If at any point the pursuers are within 5' (melee range) at the start of a round, they may begin melee combat; the fleeing characters will be subject to “parting shots” as described under Defensive Movement if they continue to flee after the pursuers close to melee range.

If the fleeing characters or creatures are ever able to get beyond the pursuer's sight for a full round, they have evaded pursuit… the pursuers have lost them.

Defensive Movement

Any time a character turns his or her back on an adjacent opponent (who has a ready weapon) and begins movement, that opponent is allowed a “parting shot” with a +2 bonus to attack, even if that opponent has already made all attacks for the round. Opponents with attack routines must choose one attack mode; for instance, a tiger with a claw/claw/bite routine could only claw once or bite once.

Alternately, the character may begin backing away (at up to half normal walking movement) while continuing to fight (if the opponent remains within reach, that is, follows the retreating character). This is termed a fighting withdrawal.

How to Attack

To roll “to hit,” the attacker rolls 1d20 and adds his or her attack bonus (AB), as shown on the Attack Bonus table, as well as Strength bonus (if performing a melee attack) or Dexterity bonus (if performing a missile attack) and any other adjustments required by the situation. If the total is equal to or greater than the opponent's Armor Class, the attack hits and damage is rolled. A natural “1” on the die roll is always a failure. A natural “20” is always a hit, if the opponent can be hit at all (for example, monsters that can only be hit by silver or magic weapons cannot be hit by normal weapons, so a natural “20” with a normal weapon will not hit such a monster).

Attacking from Behind

Attacks made from behind an opponent usually receive a +2 attack bonus. This does not combine with the Sneak Attack ability (see the Thief, above).

Normal Men

A note about normal men: The NM entry in the table above is for normal men, also known as zero level characters. These characters represent the artisans, shopkeepers, scullery maids, and other non-adventurer characters who will appear in the game. All such characters are NPCs, of course. Demi-human races have few if any zero-level characters among their numbers; the vast majority of “normal men” are humans.

Average zero-level humans have 1d4 hit points, and usually are not proficient with any weapons except bare hands. Green troops (those who have not been in battle yet) are zero-level, but they have 1d6 hit points and are allowed to use any weapon allowed to a Fighter.

It is recommended not to waste time in detailing the ability score or other statistics of such characters further; they are normal, as in “average,” and so very few would have extreme statistics. A blacksmith might be credited with a Strength score of 13 or more, or a savant with Intelligence of 16 or more, but in general such things need not be detailed for most of these characters.

Monster Attack Bonus

When looking up a monster's hit dice on the Attack Bonus Table, ignore all “plus” or “minus” values; so a monster with 3+2 hit dice, or one with 3-1, is still treated as just 3 hit dice. The exception is monsters with 1-1 or lower hit dice, which are considered less than one hit die and have an attack bonus of +0.

Melee Combat

Melee occurs after a character has closed for combat and strikes at a monster or other foe. Melee weapons or attacks may generally only be used against foes who are engaged with the attacker (as described above).

Missile Fire

Missile weapons may be used to attack foes at a distance. The distance the attacker is from his target affects the attack roll, as shown on the Missile Weapon Ranges table in the Characters section, above. In general, opponents within Short range are attacked at +1 on the die, those beyond Short range but within Medium range are attacked at +0, and those beyond Medium but within Long range are attacked at -2. Foes beyond Long range cannot be effectively attacked.

If a character attempts to use a missile weapon against a foe who is within 5' of him or her (i.e. who is engaged with the shooter), a penalty of -5 is applied to the attack roll. This is due to the shooter dodging around to avoid the foe's attacks. The only exception is if the attacker is behind the target creature and undetected, or that creature is distracted so as to not be able to attack the shooter; in these cases, apply the usual +1 bonus (+3 total bonus if attacking from behind).

Cover and Concealment

In certain situations, the intended target of a missile (or melee) attack may have cover or concealment of some kind. Cover is defined as “hard” protection such as that afforded by a thick tree trunk or stone wall, that is, anything that will stop or slow a missile weapon. Concealment is “soft” cover like fog or light foliage that makes the target difficult to see but does not affect the missile itself. Cover or concealment makes it more difficult to strike an intended target, and thus a penalty will be applied to the attacker's die roll depending upon how much of the target is protected from attack. For concealment the attack penalty should range from -1 (25% obscured) to -4 (90% obscured). For hard cover, these penalties should be doubled.

Missile Weapon Rate of Fire

In general, missile weapons are allowed a single attack per round, just as are melee weapons. However, crossbows are an exception, as reloading a crossbow between shots is time-consuming.

A light crossbow can be fired once per two rounds, and the user may not perform any other actions (including movement) during the “reloading” round. A heavy crossbow can be fired just once per three rounds, again requiring the user to spend two rounds doing nothing other than cocking and loading the weapon in order to fire it again.

Siege engines also fire less often than ordinary weapons. The rate of fire for such a weapon is presented as a fraction, indicating the number of attacks per round; for example, 1/6 means one attack every six rounds.

Of course, the user of such a weapon may drop or sling the weapon and switch to another weapon rather than reloading. Also, it is possible (especially when defending a position) to load more than one crossbow in advance and then switch weapons each round until all have been fired. In a dungeon environment this sort of strategy is unlikely, of course.

Grenade-Like Missiles

When throwing grenade-like missiles (flasks of oil, etc.), a successful attack roll indicates a direct hit. Otherwise, the GM will roll 1d10 and consult the diagram below to determine where the missile hit. Treat each number as representing a 10' square area.

(behind)
0
7 8 9
5 Target 6
2 3 4
1
(in front)

Missiles That Miss

With the exception of grenade-like missiles, missile weapons which miss the intended target are normally considered lost. However, if the weapon is fired into a melee where allies of the shooter are involved, and the attack misses, it may hit one of the allied creatures. The GM should decide which allies may be hit, and roll attacks against each until a hit is made or all possible targets are exhausted. These attack rolls are made with the shooter's normal attack bonus, just as if he or she intended to attack the allied creature. However, the GM must make these rolls, not the player.

This rule is applied to attacks made by monsters, when appropriate. However, the GM still makes the rolls.

This rule is intentionally vague; the GM must decide when and how to apply it based on the circumstances of the battle. It is recommended that no more than three allies be “tried” in this way, but the GM may make an exception as he or she sees fit.

Damage

If an attack hits, the attacker rolls damage as given for the weapon. Melee attacks apply the Strength bonus or penalty to the damage dice, as do thrown missile weapons such as daggers or spears. Usually, attacks with bows or crossbows do not gain the Strength bonus, but sling bullets or stones do.

Also, magic weapons will add their bonuses to damage (and cursed weapons will apply their penalty). Note that, regardless of any penalties to damage, any successful hit will do at least one point of damage.

As explained elsewhere, a creature or character reduced to 0 hit points is dead.

Subduing Damage

Attacks made with the “flat of the blade” for non-lethal damage are made at a -4 attack penalty and do half damage. Most weapons can be used this way; only those with penetration or slashing features on all sides cannot.

If a character is reduced to zero hit points who has taken at least some subduing damage, the character becomes unconscious rather than dying. (Any further subduing damage is then considered killing damage, allowing the possibility that someone might be beaten to death.) A character knocked out in this way, but not subsequently killed, will wake up with 1 hit point in 1d4 turns, or can be awakened (with 1 hit point) by someone else after 2d10 rounds.

Brawling

Sometimes a character will attack without a weapon, striking with a fist or foot. This is called brawling. Normal characters do 1d3 points of subduing damage with a punch, 1d4 with a kick; kicks are rolled at a -2 attack penalty. A character in no armor or leather armor cannot successfully punch or kick a character in metal armor, and in fact, if this is attempted the damage is applied to the attacker instead of the defender. The GM must decide which monsters can be successfully attacked this way. All character classes may engage in brawling; there is no “weapon” restriction in this case.

Wrestling

A wrestling attack requires a successful melee attack roll, where success indicates the attacker has grabbed his or her opponent. This hold is maintained until the attacker releases it or the defender makes a save vs. Death Ray, which is attempted at the defender's next action (according to Initiative). A successful wrestling attack causes the attacker to move into the same “space” as the defender (if miniature figures are used).

After achieving a hold on an opponent, the attacker can automatically inflict unarmed damage (as if striking with a fist), prevent a held opponent from speaking, use simple magic items such as rings, or take any other action the GM allows. The attacker may also attempt to acquire an item the opponent is holding (such as a weapon) or attempt to move the opponent (as described below). A held character may be voluntarily released whenever the attacker so desires.

The attacker can’t draw or use a weapon or use a wand, staff, scroll or potion, escape another’s wrestling attack, cast a spell, or pin another character while holding an opponent.

Moving the Opponent: The attacker can move up to one-half speed (bringing the defender along) with a successful attack roll, if the attacker is strong enough to carry or drag the defender.

Acquiring an Object: The attacker may attempt to take an item away from the defender. This requires an additional attack roll; if the roll fails, the defender may immediately attempt an attack roll (even if he or she has already attacked this round) which, if successful, results in the defender pinning the attacker; or, the defender may choose to escape instead of reversing the hold.

Actions Allowed to the Defender: The target of a successful hold is usually immobile (but not helpless) at least until his or her next action, as determined by Initiative. Such characters suffer a penalty of -4 to AC against opponents other than the attacker.

If the defender is significantly stronger and/or larger than the attacker, he or she may move at up to one-half speed, dragging the attacker along.

On the defender's next action, he or she can try to escape the pin with a saving throw vs. Death Ray; the defender must apply the better of his or her Strength or Dexterity bonuses (or penalties) on this roll. If the escape roll succeeds, the defender finishes the action by moving into any space adjacent to the attacker.

If more than one attacker has a hold on a particular defender, a successful escape roll frees the defender from just one of those attackers.

Held characters may also use simple magic items such as rings. A character being held may not normally cast a spell, even if he or she has not been silenced by the attacker.

Multiple Opponents: Several combatants can be involved in a wrestling match. Up to four combatants can wrestle a single opponent of normal size in a given round. Creatures that are smaller than the attacker count for half, while creatures that are larger count at least double (as determined by the GM). Note that, after an opponent is pinned, other attackers benefit from the -4 AC penalty applied to the defender. However, this AC penalty is not cumulative (that is, each successful attack does not lower the defender's AC further).

It is also possible for another character to attack the attacker in an ongoing wrestling bout. In this case, a successful hold on the attacker grants the original defender a +4 bonus on subsequent escape rolls.

Wrestling With Monsters: In general, the rules above can be used not only when character races wrestle but also when humanoid monsters are involved. The GM will decide whether or not to allow wrestling involving non-humanoid creatures on a case-by-case basis; if this is allowed, the following adjustments apply:

Creatures with extra grasping appendages (more than the usual two) gain a +1 bonus on attack rolls or saving throws for each such appendage. This includes creatures with feet capable of grasping (such as monkeys or apes, giant spiders, etc.)

Large creatures able to fly may attempt to carry off their opponents (even if the flying creature is the defender).

Wrestling attacks against creatures with touch attacks (such as wights) will cause the attacker to suffer one such attack automatically every round.

Oil

A flask of oil can be used as a grenade-like missile. The oil must be set afire in order to inflict damage; otherwise the oil is just slippery. Assuming some means of igniting the oil is at hand, a direct hit to a creature deals 1d8 points of fire damage, plus in the next round the target takes an additional 1d8 points of damage, unless he or she spends the round extinguishing the flames by some reasonable means. The GM must judge the method used; rolling on the floor (assuming it's not oily also) or covering the flames with a wet blanket are good methods, for instance, while pouring or splashing water on burning oil does little good. In any event, a flask of burning oil only causes damage for two rounds at most.

If the oil is ignited by some sort of wick or fuse, then all other creatures within 5 feet of the point of impact receive 1d6 points of fire damage from the splash. A save vs. Death Ray is allowed to avoid this damage. If the flask does not hit the intended target (as described under Grenade-Like Missiles, above), then that creature may still take damage from the splash, and receives a saving throw. No saving throw is allowed for a creature which has received a direct hit.

A flask of oil spilled or splattered on the ground will burn for 10 rounds. Those attempting to cross the burning oil will receive 1d6 points of fire damage each round they are in it (with no saving throw in this case).

Fire-resistant creatures, including creatures having fire-based abilities, are not damaged by burning oil.

Holy Water

Holy water damages undead creatures. A flask of holy water can be thrown as a grenade-like missile; the flask breaks if thrown against the body of a corporeal creature, but to use it against an incorporeal creature, it must be opened and poured out onto the target, generally requiring the attacker to be adjacent to the target.

A direct hit by a flask of holy water deals 1d8 points of damage to an undead creature. In addition, each such creature within 5 feet of the point of impact receives 1d6 points of damage from the splash. Holy water is only effective for one round.

Morale

NPCs and monsters don't always fight to the death; in fact, most will try to avoid death whenever possible. Each monster listing includes the monster's Morale score, a figure between 2 and 12. To make a Morale check, roll 2d6; if the roll is equal to or less than the Morale score, the monster or monsters are willing to stand and fight. If the roll is higher than the score, the monster has lost its nerve. Monsters with a Morale score of 12 never fail a Morale check; they always fight to the death.

In general, Morale is checked when monster(s) first encounter opposition, and again when the monster party is reduced to half strength (by numbers if more than one monster, or by hit points if the monster is alone). For this purpose, monsters incapacitated by sleep, charm, or hold magic are counted as if dead.

The Game Master may apply adjustments to a monster's Morale score in some situations, at his or her discretion. Generally, adjustments should not total more than +2 or -2. No adjustment is ever applied to a Morale score of 12.

A monster that fails a Morale check will generally attempt to flee; intelligent monsters or NPCs may attempt to surrender, if the GM so desires.

Note that special rules apply to retainers; see the relevant rules in the Adventure section, above.

Turning the Undead

Clerics can Turn the undead, that is, drive away undead monsters by means of faith alone. The Cleric brandishes his or her holy symbol and calls upon the power of his or her divine patron. The player rolls 1d20 and tells the GM the result. Note that the player should always roll, even if the GM knows the character can't succeed (or can't fail), as telling the player whether or not to roll may reveal too much.

The GM looks up the Cleric's level on the Clerics vs. Undead table, and cross-references it with the undead type or Hit Dice. (The Hit Dice row is provided for use with undead monsters not found in the Core Rules; only use the Hit Dice row if the specific type of undead monster is not on the table and no guidance is given in the monster's description.) If the table indicates “No” for that combination, it is not possible for the Cleric to affect that type of undead monster. If the table gives a number, that is the minimum number needed on 1d20 to Turn that sort of undead. If the table says “T” for that combination, that type of undead is automatically affected (no roll needed). If the result shown is a “D,” then that sort of undead will be Damaged (and possibly destroyed) rather than merely Turned.

If the roll is a success, 2d6 hit dice of undead monsters are affected; surplus hit dice are lost (so if zombies are being Turned and a roll of 7 is made, at most 3 zombies can be Turned), but a minimum of one creature will always be affected if the first roll succeeds.

If a mixed group of undead (say, a wight and a pair of zombies) is to be Turned, the player still rolls just once. The result is checked against the weakest sort first (the zombies), and if they are successfully Turned, the same result is checked against the next higher type of undead. Likewise, the 2d6 hit dice are rolled only once. For example, if the group described above is to be Turned by a 2nd level Cleric, he or she would first need to have rolled a 15 or higher to Turn the zombies. If this is a success, 2d6 are rolled; assuming the 2d6 roll is a 7, this would Turn both zombies and leave a remainder of 3 hit dice of effect. Wights are, in fact, 3 hit die monsters, so assuming the original 1d20 roll was a 20, the wight is Turned as well. Obviously, were it a group of 3 zombies and a wight, the 2d6 roll would have to be a total of 9 or higher to affect them all.

If a Cleric succeeds at Turning the undead, but not all undead monsters present are affected, he or she may try again in the next round to affect those which remain. If any roll to Turn the Undead fails, that Cleric may not attempt to Turn Undead again for one full turn. A partial failure (possible against a mixed group) counts as a failure for this purpose.

Undead monsters which are Turned flee from the Cleric and his or her party at maximum movement. If the party pursue and corner the Turned undead, they may resume attacking the party; but if left alone, the monsters will not return or attempt to attack the Cleric or those near him or her for at least 2d4 turns.

Undead monsters subject to a D (Damaged) result suffer 1d8 damage per level of the Cleric (roll once and apply the same damage to all undead monsters affected); those reduced to zero hit points are utterly destroyed, being blasted into little more than dust. Those surviving this damage are still Turned as above.

Energy Drain

Sometimes characters are exposed to energy drain from undead or evil magic. Such energy drain is manifested in the form of “negative levels.” For each negative level a victim receives, he or she suffers a semi-permanent loss of one hit die worth of hit points, a penalty of -1 on all attack and saving throw rolls (and any other roll made on 1d20), and -5% to any percentile roll such as thief abilities. In addition, an affected spell caster loses access to one of his or her highest-level spell slots. The victim may or may not be allowed a saving throw to resist the effect (depending on the specific monster type).

If the character's hit points are reduced to zero or less by means of energy drain, the victim is immediately slain. If the energy drain is caused by an undead monster, the victim will usually be transformed into that sort of undead (exact details vary by type of monster).

Negative levels may be removed by magic, such as the restoration spell. When a negative level is to be removed, divide the total number of hit points lost by the number of negative levels (rounding normally) to determine how many hit points are restored.

For example, a character suffers three negative levels of energy drain. The hit point losses rolled were 6, 5, and 2, for a total of 13 points lost. The first negative level removed restores 13 / 3 = 4.3333 hit points (which is rounded to 4 even). Now the character has two negative levels and has lost 9 hit points. The next time a negative level is removed, the character recovers 9 / 2 = 4.5 hit points, which is rounded to 5 even. Now the character has one negative level and 4 hit points lost. Removal of the last negative level will restore the remaining 4 points.

Those who have suffered energy drain generally have a gaunt, haggard look about them, noticeable by observant characters.

Healing and Rest

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Characters recover 1 hit point of damage every day, provided that normal sleep is possible. Characters who choose full bedrest regain an additional hit point each evening.

Normal characters require 6 hours sleep out of every 24. Subtract from this number of hours the character's Constitution bonus; so a character with 18 Constitution needs only 3 hours sleep per night (and a character with 3 Constitution needs 9 hours). Note that these figures are minimums; given a choice, most characters would prefer to sleep two or more hours longer.

Characters who get less than the required amount of sleep suffer a -1 penalty on all attack rolls and saving throws (as well as not receiving any hit points of healing). For each additional night where sufficient sleep is not received, the penalty becomes one point worse. Regardless of how long the character has gone without adequate sleep, the normal amount of sleep will remove these penalties.

Constitution Point Losses

Any character who has lost Constitution points temporarily (such as due to a disease) may regain them with normal rest. The rate of recovery is one point per day, awarded each morning when the character awakens from a normal night's sleep. If more than one Constitution point was lost, the character must make a save vs. Death Ray (without adjustments) to regain the final point; failure results in a permanent loss of that point.

If a Constitution loss results in a lower bonus or penalty, the character's maximum hit points must be reduced appropriately; for instance, a character reduced from 16 to 15 Constitution goes from +2 to +1, thus losing one hit point per die rolled. If a reduction in maximum hit points reduces that figure to less than the character's current hit points, reduce the current hit points to the new maximum hit point figure immediately.

When regaining Constitution, any increase that increases the character's Constitution bonus results in the restoration of the hit points lost due to the reduction, added to the maximum hit point figure only. Current hit points will not be improved in this fashion, but rather must be regained by normal healing.

Falling Damage

Characters suffer 1d6 damage per 10' fallen, up to a maximum 20d6. Fractional distances are rounded to the nearest whole number, so that a fall of 1-4' does no damage, 5'-14' does 1d6, etc.

Deafness and Blindness

A deafened creature can react only to what it can see or feel, is surprised on 1-3 on 1d6, and suffers a -1 penalty to its Initiative rolls. A blinded creature is surprised on 1-4 on 1d6, suffers a -4 penalty to its attack rolls, a -4 penalty to its Armor Class, and a -2 penalty to its Initiative rolls. These effects are modified when dealing with monsters having unusual sensory abilities; for example, bats may be affected by deafness as if blinded instead.

These penalties are for characters or creatures recently handicapped. Those who are normally blind or deaf may have reduced penalties at the GM's option.

Note that the penalty for attacking an invisible opponent is the same as the penalty for attacking blind, that is, -4 on the attack roll.

Attacking a Vehicle

Attacks against vehicles (such as wagons or ships) are made against Armor Class 11. Each vehicle has listed Hardness and Hit Point values. Roll damage against the vehicle, and then reduce that damage by the Hardness value. Any excess damage is applied to the vehicle.

If the vehicle takes damage equal to or greater than the listed HP on one side, it is reduced to half speed due to wheel damage or a hull breach; if it takes this much again, it is immobilized, and this much damage will sink a ship.

Repairing a Vehicle

Damage done to a vehicle may be restored at a rate of 1d4 hit points per crew member per hour of labor. However, a vehicle can only be restored to 90% of its maximum hit points by field repairs; a damaged ship must be put into drydock and repaired by a shipwright and his crew, while a wagon, cart or chariot will require a wagonmaker to repair them. Costs of such repairs are left to the Game Master to decide.

Saving Throws

Saving throws represent the ability of a character or creature to resist or avoid special attacks, such as spells or poisons. Like an attack roll, a saving throw is a d20 roll, with a target number based on the character's class and level; for monsters, a comparable class and level are provided for the purpose of determining the monster's saving throw figures. A natural (unadjusted) roll of 1 on a saving throw is always a failure, while a natural 20 is always a success.

The five categories of saving throw as follows: Death Ray or Poison, Magic Wands, Paralysis or Petrify, Dragon Breath, and Spells. Spells and monster special attacks will indicate which category applies (when a saving throw is allowed), but in some unusual situations the Game Master will need to choose a category. One way to make this choice is to interpret the categories metaphorically. For example, a GM might be writing an adventure wherein there is a trap that pours burning oil on the hapless adventurers. Avoiding the oil might be considered similar to avoiding Dragon Breath. Or perhaps a stone idol shoots beams of energy from its glaring eyes when approached. This attack may be considered similar to a Magic Wand, or if especially potent, a Spell. The saving throw vs. Death Ray is often used as a "catch all" save versus many of the "ordinary" dangers encountered in a dungeon environment.

In general, saving throw rolls are not adjusted by ability score bonus or penalty figures. There are a few exceptions:

The GM may decide on other saving throw adjustments as he or she sees fit.

Item Saving Throws

Area effects (such as fireball or lightning bolt spells) may damage items carried by a character as well as injuring the character. For simplicity, assume that items carried are unaffected if the character or creature carrying them makes his or her own saving throw. However, very fragile items (paper vs. fire, glass vs. physical impact, etc.) may still be considered subject to damage even if the bearer makes his or her save.

In any case where one or more items may be subject to damage, use the saving throw roll of the bearer to determine if the item is damaged or not. For example, a character holding an open spellbook is struck by a fireball spell; he or she must save vs. Spells, and then save again at the same odds for the spellbook.

The GM should feel free to amend this rule as he or she wishes; for instance, a backpack full of fragile items might be given a single saving throw rather than laboriously rolling for each and every item.

Saving Throw Tables by Class

Cleric

Level Death Ray or Poison Magic

Wands

Paralysis

or Petrify

Dragon

Breath

Spells
1 11 12 14 16 15
2-3 10 11 13 15 14
4-5 9 10 13 15 14
6-7 9 10 12 14 13
8-9 8 9 12 14 13
10-11 8 9 11 13 12
12-13 7 8 11 13 12
14-15 7 8 10 12 11
16-17 6 7 10 12 11
18-19 6 7 9 11 10
20 5 6 9 11 10

Fighter

Level Death Ray or Poison Magic

Wands

Paralysis

or Petrify

Dragon

Breath

Spells
NM 13 14 15 16 18
1 12 13 14 15 17
2-3 11 12 14 15 16
4-5 11 11 13 14 15
6-7 10 11 12 14 15
8-9 9 10 12 13 14
10-11 9 9 11 12 13
12-13 8 9 10 12 13
14-15 7 8 10 11 12
16-17 7 7 9 10 11
18-19 6 7 8 10 11
20 5 6 8 9 10

Magic-User

Level Death Ray or Poison Magic

Wands

Paralysis

or Petrify

Dragon

Breath

Spells
1 13 14 13 16 15
2-3 13 14 13 15 14
4-5 12 13 12 15 13
6-7 12 12 11 14 13
8-9 11 11 10 14 12
10-11 11 10 9 13 11
12-13 10 10 9 13 11
14-15 10 9 8 12 10
16-17 9 8 7 12 9
18-19 9 7 6 11 9
20 8 6 5 11 8

Thief

Level Death Ray or Poison Magic

Wands

Paralysis

or Petrify

Dragon

Breath

Spells
1 13 14 13 16 15
2-3 12 14 12 15 14
4-5 11 13 12 14 13
6-7 11 13 11 13 13
8-9 10 12 11 12 12
10-11 9 12 10 11 11
12-13 9 10 10 10 11
14-15 8 10 9 9 10
16-17 7 9 9 8 9
18-19 7 9 8 7 9
20 6 8 8 6 8

PART 6: MONSTERS

Name: The first thing given for each monster is its name (or its most common name, if the monster is known by more than one). If an asterisk appears after the monster's name, it indicates that the monster is only able to be hit by special weapons (such as silver or magical weapons, or creatures affected only by fire, etc.) which makes the monster harder to defeat.

Armor Class: This line gives the creature’s AC for normal combat. If the monster customarily wears armor, the first listed AC value is with that armor, and the second, in parentheses, is unarmored. Some monsters are only able to be hit (damaged) by silver or magical weapons; these are indicated either in words or with a dagger †; some monsters may only be hit with magical weapons, indicated by a double dagger ‡.

Hit Dice: This line gives the creature’s number of hit dice, and lists any bonus hit points. Monsters always roll eight sided dice (d8) for hit points, unless otherwise noted. So for example a creature with 3+2 hit dice rolls 3d8 and adds 2 points to the total.

One or two asterisks (*) may appear after the hit dice figure; where present, they indicate a Special Ability Bonus to experience points (XP) awarded for the monster. See Character Advancement in the Adventuresection for more details.

If the monster's Attack Bonus is different than its number of Hit Dice, for convenience the Attack Bonus will be listed in parentheses after the Hit Dice figure.

Movement: This line gives the monster's movement rate, or rates for those monsters able to move in more than one fashion. For example, Bugbears have a normal walking movement of 30', and this is all that is listed for them. Mermaids can only move about in the water, and so their movement is given as Swim 40'. Pegasi can both walk and fly, so their movement is listed as 80' Fly 160'.

In addition, a distance may appear in parentheses after a movement figure; this is the creature's turning distance (see Part 5: The Encounter). If a turning distance is not listed, assume 5'.

Attacks: The number (and sometimes type or types) of attacks the monster can perform. For example, Goblins may attack once with a weapon, so they are marked 1 weapon. Ghouls are marked 2 claws/1 bite as they can attack with both claws and also bite in one round.

Damage: The damage figures caused by successful attacks by the monster. Generally this will be defined in terms of one or more die rolls.

No. Appearing: This is given in terms of one or more die rolls. Monsters that only appear underground and have no lairs will have a single die roll; those that have lairs and/or those that can be found in the wilderness will be noted appropriately. For example, a monster noted as “1d6, Wild 2d6, Lair 3d6” is encountered in groups of 1d6 individuals in a dungeon setting, 2d6 individuals in the wilderness, or 3d6 individuals in a lair.

Note that number appearing applies to combatants. Non-combatant monsters (juveniles, and sometimes females) do not count in this number. The text of the monster description should explain this in detail where it matters, but the GM is always the final arbiter.

Save As: The character class and level the monster uses for saving throws. Most monsters save as Fighters of a level equal to their hit dice.

Morale: The number that must be rolled equal to or less than on 2d6 for the monster to pass a Morale Check. Monsters having a Morale of 12 never fail morale checks, and fight until destroyed (or until they have no enemies left).

Treasure Type: This line reflects how much wealth the creature owns. See the Treasure section for more details. In most cases, a creature keeps valuables in its home or lair and has no treasure with it when it travels. Intelligent creatures that own useful, portable treasure (such as magic items) tend to carry and use these, leaving bulky items at home.

XP: The number of experience points awarded for defeating this monster. In some cases, the figure will vary; for instance, Dragons of different age categories will have different XP values. Review the Experience Points awards table in the Adventure section, above, to calculate the correct figure in these cases.

Beasts of Burden

Camel Donkey Horse, Draft Horse, Riding
Armor Class: 13 13 13 13
Hit Dice: 2 2 3 2
No. of Attacks: 1 bite/1 hoof 1 bite 2 hooves 2 hooves
Damage: 1/1d4 1d2 1d4/1d4 1d4/1d4
Movement: 50' (10') [ 40' (10') ] 40' (10') 60' (10') 80' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 2d4 Wild 2d4 domestic only Wild 10d10
Save As: Fighter: 2 Fighter: 2 Fighter: 3 Fighter: 2
Morale: 7 7 7 7
XP: 75 75 145 75
Horse, War Mule Pony
Armor Class: 13 13 13
Hit Dice: 3 2 1
No. of Attacks: 2 hooves 1 kick or 1 bite 1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d6 1d4 or 1d2 1d4
Movement: 60' (10') 40' (10') 40' (10')
No. Appearing: domestic only domestic only domestic only
Save As: Fighter: 3 Fighter: 2 Fighter: 1
Morale: 9 7 6 (9)
XP: 145 75 25

For convenience, animals commonly used to carry loads and/or characters are listed here together. Such creatures obviously have no treasure.

Camels are known for their ability to travel long distances without food or water. The statistics presented here are for the dromedary, or one-humped camel, which thrives in warm deserts. A dromedary stands about 7 feet tall at the shoulder, with its hump rising 1 foot higher. The two-humped, or Bactrian, camel is suited to cooler, rocky areas. It is stockier, slower (speed given in brackets), and tougher than the dromedary. A light load for a camel is up to 400 pounds; a heavy load, up to 800 pounds.

Donkeys are long-eared, horselike creatures. They are surefooted and sturdy, and can be taken into dungeons or caverns. The statistics presented here could also describe burros. A light load for a donkey is up to 70 pounds; a heavy load, up to 140 pounds.

Draft Horses include large breeds of working horses such as Clydesdales. These animals are usually ready for heavy work by age three. A light load for a draft horse is up to 350 pounds; a heavy load, up to 700 pounds.

Riding Horses include smaller breeds of working horses such as quarter horses and Arabians as well as wild horses. These animals are usually ready for useful work by age two. Riding horses cannot fight while a rider is mounted. A light load for a riding horse is up to 250 pounds; a heavy load, up to 500 pounds.

War Horses are trained and bred for strength and aggression. They usually are not ready for warfare before age three. A light load for a warhorse is up to 350 pounds; a heavy load, up to 700 pounds.

Mules are sterile crossbreeds of donkeys and horses. They can be taken into dungeons or caverns. A mule is similar to a riding horse, but slightly stronger and more agile. A light load for a mule is up to 300 pounds; a heavy load, up to 600 pounds.

A Pony is a small horse, under 5 feet tall at the shoulder. Ponies are otherwise similar to riding horses and cannot fight while carrying a rider. Ponies can be trained for war, and the morale in parentheses above is for a war pony; this does not allow them to fight while carrying a rider. A light load for a pony is up to 275 pounds; a heavy load, up to 550 pounds.

Monster Descriptions

Ant, Giant
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d6
Movement: 60' (10')
No. Appearing: 2d6, Wild 2d6, Lair 4d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 7 on first sighting, 12 after engaged
Treasure Type: U or special
XP: 240

Giant ants are among the hardiest and most adaptable vermin. Soldiers and workers are about 5 to 6 feet long, while queens can grow to a length of 9 feet. Giant ants may be red or black; there is no statistical difference between them. Though relatively shy when first encountered, once combat begins they will fight to the death. They are known to collect shiny things, and so will sometimes have a small amount of treasure in their lair.

Giant ants may occasionally mine shiny metals such as gold or silver; one in three (1-2 on 1d6) giant ant lairs will contain 1d100 x 1d100 gp value in relatively pure nuggets.

Antelope
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 1 to 4
No. of Attacks: 1 butt
Damage: 1d4 or 1d6 or 1d8
Movement: 80' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 3d10
Save As: Fighter: 1 to 4 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 5 (7)
Treasure Type: None
XP: 25 - 240

The statistics above represent common sorts of wild herd animals, including deer (1 hit die), aurochs (2 hit dice), elk or moose (3 hit dice) and bison (4 hit dice). Such creatures are often skittish and likely to flee if provoked, but males are more aggressive in the presence of females (the parenthesized morale applies in this case).

Ape, Carnivorous
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 2 claws
Damage: 1d4/1d4
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 2d4, Lair 2d4
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 240

These powerful creatures resemble gorillas but are far more aggressive; though they are actually omnivores, they prefer meat, and they kill and eat anything they can catch. An adult male carnivorous ape is 5-1/2 to 6 feet tall and weighs 300 to 400 pounds.

Assassin Vine
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 6
No. of Attacks: 1 + special
Damage: 1d8 + special
Movement: 5'
No. Appearing: 1d4+1
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: U
XP: 500

The assassin vine is a semi-mobile plant found in temperate forests that collects its own grisly fertilizer by grabbing and crushing animals and depositing the carcasses near its roots.

Because it can lie very still indeed, an assassin vine surprises on a roll of 1-4 on 1d6. A successful hit inflicts 1d8 points of damage, and the victim becomes entangled, suffering an additional 1d8 points of damage thereafter. A victim may attempt to escape by rolling a saving throw vs. Death Ray with Strength bonus added; this is a full action, so the victim may not attempt this and also perform an attack. The plant will continue to crush its victim until one or the other is dead or the victim manages to escape.

An assassin vine can move about, albeit very slowly, but generally only does so to seek new hunting grounds. They have no visual organs but can sense foes within 30 feet by sound and vibration.

A mature plant consists of a main vine, about 20 feet long. Smaller vines up to 5 feet long branch off from the main vine about every 6 inches. These small vines bear clusters of leaves, and in late summer they produce bunches of small fruits that resemble wild grapes. The fruit is tough and has a hearty but bitter flavor. Assassin vine berries make a heady wine.

A subterranean version of the assassin vine grows near hot springs, volcanic vents, and other sources of thermal energy. These plants have thin, wiry stems and gray leaves shot through with silver, brown, and white veins so that they resemble mineral deposits. An assassin vine growing underground usually generates enough offal to support a thriving colony of mushrooms and other fungi, which spring up around the plant and help conceal it.

Basilisk
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 6**
No. of Attacks: 1 bite/1 gaze
Damage: 1d10/petrification
Movement: 20' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: F
XP: 610

A basilisk is an eight-legged reptilian monster that petrifies living creatures with a mere gaze. A basilisk usually has a dull brown body with a yellowish underbelly. Some specimens sport a short, curved horn atop the nose. An adult basilisk’s body grows to about 6 feet long, not including its tail, which can reach an additional length of 5 to 7 feet. The creature weighs about 300 pounds.

Any living creature which meets the gaze of the basilisk must save vs. Petrification or be turned to stone instantly. In general, any creature surprised by the basilisk will meet its gaze. Those who attempt to fight the monster while averting their eyes suffer penalties of -4 to attack and -2 to AC. It is possible to use a mirror to fight the monster, in which case the penalties are -2 to attack and no penalty to AC. If a basilisk sees its own reflection in a mirror it must save vs. Petrification or be turned to stone; a petrified basilisk loses its power to petrify. Basilisks instinctively avoid mirrors or other reflective surfaces, even drinking with their eyes closed, but if an attacker can manage to surprise the monster with a mirror it may see its reflection.

Bat (and Bat, Giant)
Bat Giant Bat
Armor Class: 14 14
Hit Dice: 1 Hit Point 2
No. of Attacks: 1 special 1 bite
Damage: Confusion 1d4
Movement: 30' Fly 40' 10' Fly 60' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d100,

Wild 1d100,

Lair 1d100

1d10,

Wild 1d10,

Lair 1d10

Save As: Normal Man Fighter: 2
Morale: 6 8
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 10 75

Bats are nocturnal flying mammals. The statistics presented here describe small, insectivorous bats. They have a natural sonar that allows them to operate in total darkness; for game purposes, treat this ability as Darkvision.

A group of normal-sized bats has no effective attack (at least in terms of doing damage) but can confuse those in the area, flying around apparently randomly. For every ten bats in the area, one creature can be confused; such a creature will suffer a penalty of -2 on all attack and saving throw rolls while the bats remain in the area.

A giant bat has a wingspan of 15 feet and weighs about 200 pounds. They have the same sensory abilities as normal-sized bats, but being much larger, they are able to attack adventurers; many are carnivorous, making such attacks likely.

Bear

Bears attack by rending opponents with their claws, dragging them in and biting them. A successful hit with both paws indicates a hug attack for additional damage (as given for each specific bear type). All bears are very tough to kill, and are able to move and attack for one round after losing all hit points.

Bear, Black
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite + hug
Damage: 1d4/1d4/1d6 + 2d6 hug
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 240

The black bear is a forest-dwelling omnivore that usually is not dangerous unless an interloper threatens its cubs or food supply.

Black bears may actually be pure black, blond, or cinnamon in color. They are rarely more than 5 feet long.

Bear, Cave
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 7
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite + hug
Damage: 1d8/1d8/2d6 + 2d8 hug
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d2, Lair 1d2
Save As: Fighter: 7
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: None
XP: 670

These monstrous bears are even larger than grizzly bears. They are ferocious killers, attacking almost anything of equal or smaller size.

Bear, Grizzly (or Brown)

Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 5
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite + hug
Damage: 1d4/1d4/1d8 + 2d8 hug
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 360

These massive carnivores weigh more than 1,800 pounds and stand nearly 9 feet tall when they rear up on their hind legs. They are bad-tempered and territorial.

Bear, Polar
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 6
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite + hug
Damage: 1d6/1d6/1d10 + 2d8 hug
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1d2, Lair 1d2
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 500

These long, lean carnivores are slightly taller than grizzly bears, and just as hostile.

Bee, Giant
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 1d4hp*
No. of Attacks: 1 sting
Damage: 1d4 + poison
Movement: 10' Fly 50'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 1d6, Lair 5d6
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: Special
XP: 13

Although many times larger, growing to a length of about a foot, giant bees behave generally the same as their smaller cousins. Giant bees are usually not aggressive except when defending themselves or their hive. Those stung by a giant bee must save vs. Poison or die. A giant bee that successfully stings another creature pulls away, leaving its stinger in the creature. The bee then dies.

Beetle, Giant Bombardier
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 2*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite + special
Damage: 1d6 + special
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d8, Wild 2d6, Lair 2d6
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 100

Giant bombardier beetles have red head and thorax sections and black abdomens. They are 3 to 4 feet long. In combat, a giant bombardier beetle bites opponents in front of it, and sprays a cone of very hot and noxious gases from a nozzle in the rearmost tip of the abdomen. This toxic blast causes 2d6 points of damage to all within a cone 10' long and 10' wide at the far end (a save vs. Death Ray for half damage is allowed). A giant bombardier beetle can use this spray attack up to five times per day, but no more often than once per three rounds. Faced with opponents attacking from just one direction, a giant bombardier beetle may choose to turn away and use the spray attack rather than biting.

Giant bombardier beetles, like most beetles, have more or less the same visual acuity in all directions, and thus suffer no penalty to Armor Class when attacked from behind.

Beetle, Giant Fire
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 1+2
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d4
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d8, Wild 2d6, Lair 2d6
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 25

These luminous nocturnal insects are prized by miners and adventurers. They have two glands, one above each eye, that produce a red glow. The glands’ luminosity persists for 1d6 days after removal from the beetle, illuminating a roughly circular area with a 10-foot radius.

Giant fire beetles are about 2 feet long. They are normally timid but will fight if cornered. Like most beetles, they have more or less the same visual acuity in all directions, and thus suffer no penalty to Armor Class when attacked from behind.

Beetle, Giant Tiger
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 3+1
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d6
Movement: 60' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 2d4, Lair 2d4
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: U
XP: 145

Giant tiger beetles are predatory monsters around 5 feet long. Their carapaces tend to be dark brown with lighter brown striped or spotted patterns, but there are many variations.

They are fast runners, depending on their speed to run down prey, and they willingly prey on any creature of man size or smaller. Like most beetles, they have more or less the same visual acuity in all directions, and thus suffer no penalty to Armor Class when attacked from behind.

Black Pudding*
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 10* (+9)
No. of Attacks: 1 pseudopod
Damage: 3d8
Movement: 20'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 10
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,390

Black puddings are amorphous creatures that live only to eat. They inhabit underground areas throughout the world, scouring caverns, ruins, and dungeons in search of organic matter, living or dead. They attack any creatures they encounter, lashing out with pseudopods or simply engulfing opponents with their bodies, which secrete acids that help them catch and digest their prey.

If attacked with normal or magical weapons, or with lightning or electricity, a black pudding suffers no injury, but will be split into two puddings; the GM should divide the original black pudding's hit dice between the two however he or she sees fit, with the limitation that neither pudding may have less than two hit dice. A two hit die black pudding is simply unharmed by such attacks, but cannot be split further.

Cold or ice based attacks do not harm a black pudding, but such an attack will paralyze the pudding for one round per die of damage the attack would normally cause. Other attack forms will affect a black pudding normally; the preferred method of killing one usually involves fire.

The typical black pudding measures 10 feet across and 2 feet thick, and weighs about 10,000 pounds. Black puddings of smaller sizes may be encountered, possibly as a result of the splitting described above.

Blood Rose
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 2* to 4*
No. of Attacks: 1 to 3 plus blood drain
Damage: 1d6
Movement: 1'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 100 - 280

Blood roses appear to be normal rose bushes, but are actually animated plants, dimly aware of their surroundings. These plants are always in bloom, bearing beautiful flowers that are normally white (or rarely, yellow) in color.

The fragrance of the flowers is detectable up to 30' from the plant in ideal conditions. Blood roses can move about slowly, and will try to find locations sheltered from the wind in order to achieve those ideal conditions. Living creatures who smell the fragrance must save vs. Poison or become befuddled, dropping anything carried and approaching the plant. Each round such a creature or character is within the affected area, this save must be made. Befuddled characters will not resist the plant-creature's attacks; if affected creatures are removed from the area, the effect of the fragrance will expire 2d4 rounds later. Undead monsters, constructs, etc. are not affected.

Each blood rose plant will have 1, 2 or 3 whiplike canes studded with thorns with which it can attack. When a cane hits, it wraps around the victim and begins to drain blood, doing 1d6 points of damage per round. A blood rose which has recently (within one day) “eaten” this way will have flowers ranging from pink to deep wine red in color, which will fade slowly back to white or yellow as the plant digests the blood it has consumed.

Boar
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 3
No. of Attacks: 1 tusk
Damage: 2d4
Movement: 50' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: None
XP: 145

Though not carnivores, these wild swine are bad-tempered and usually charge anyone who disturbs them. Note that “boar” refers specifically to the male of the species, but females are equally large and fierce.

A boar is covered in coarse, grayish-black fur. Adults are about 4 feet long and 3 feet high at the shoulder.

Bugbear
Armor Class: 15 (13)
Hit Dice: 3+1
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d8+1 or by weapon +1
Movement: 30' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: 2d4, Wild 5d4, Lair 5d4
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: Q, R each; B, L, M in lair
XP: 145

Bugbears look like huge, hairy goblins, standing about 6 feet tall. Their eyes are usually a darkish brown color and they move very quietly. They are wild and relatively fearless, and bully smaller humanoids whenever possible.

Bugbears prefer to ambush opponents if they can. When hunting, they often send scouts ahead of the main group. Bugbear attacks are coordinated, and their tactics are sound if not brilliant. They are able to move in nearly complete silence, surprising opponents on 1-3 on 1d6. In order to remain silent, they must wear only leather or hide armor, as indicated in the Armor Class scores above. Bugbears receive a +1 bonus on damage due to their great Strength. As with most goblinoid monsters, they have Darkvision with a 30' range.

One out of every eight bugbears will be a hardened warrior of 4+4 Hit Dice (240 XP), with a +2 bonus to damage. In lairs of 16 or more bugbears, there will be a chieftain of 6+6 Hit Dice (500 XP), with a +3 bonus to damage. Bugbears gain a +1 bonus to their morale if they are led by a hardened warrior or chieftain. In the lair, bugbears never fail a morale check as long as the chieftain is alive. In addition, there is a 2 in 6 chance that a shaman will be present in a lair. A shaman is equal to an ordinary bugbear statistically, but possesses 1d4+1 levels of Clerical abilities.

Caecilia, Giant
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 6*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite + swallow on 19/20
Damage: 1d8 + 1d8/round if swallowed
Movement: 20' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: B
XP: 555

Caecilia are carnivorous, legless amphibians; they strongly resemble earthworms, but they have bony skeletons and sharp teeth. Caecilia live entirely underground. The giant variety grows up to 30' long and frequently are found in caverns or dungeons. They are nearly blind, but caecilia are very sensitive to sound and vibrations, and are able to find their prey regardless of light or the absence thereof.

A caecilia can swallow a single small humanoid or demi-human (such as a goblin or halfling) whole. On a natural attack roll of 19 or 20, such a victim has been swallowed (assuming that roll does actually hit the victim). A swallowed victim suffers 1d8 damage per round, and may only attack from the inside with a small cutting or stabbing weapon such as a dagger. While the inside of the caecilia is easier for the victim to hit, fighting while swallowed is more difficult, so no modifiers to the attack roll are applied.

Once a caecilia has swallowed an opponent, it will generally attempt to disengage from combat, going to its lair to rest and digest its meal.

Cave Locust, Giant
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 2**
No. of Attacks: 1 bite or 1 bump or 1 spit
Damage: 1d2 or 1d4* or special
Movement: 20' Fly 60' (15')
No. Appearing: 2d10, Wild 1d10
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 5
Treasure Type: None
XP: 125

Giant cave locusts are pale, cricket-like creatures that live underground. An average giant cave locust is 2 to 4 feet long. They are eyeless, depending on their sound-sensitive antennae, vibration-sensitive feet and a variety of touch-sensitive “hairs” on their legs to sense the environment around them.

These creatures eat subterranean fungus (including shriekers) as well as carrion; they are not predators, but if disturbed they will attack, shrieking loudly, biting, jumping wildly around, or spitting nasty goo.

All giant cave locusts in a group will shriek when disturbed, attracting wandering monsters. The GM should roll a wandering monster check each round that one or more cave locusts are attacking; if wandering monsters are indicated, they will arrive in 1d4 rounds.

Any giant cave locust that is engaged (adjacent to an opponent) will attempt to bite, doing 1d2 damage on a successful hit. This does not interrupt the monster's shrieking.

A giant cave locust can leap up to 60' horizontally, or up to 30' up. If one of these creatures is not engaged at the beginning of the round, it will leap toward one of the opponent creatures; roll a normal attack roll, and if the attack hits, the target creature takes 1d4 points of non-lethal damage from the impact.

Finally, a giant cave locust can spray a greenish-brown goo (its digestive juices) up to 10' away. Each giant cave locust can perform this attack just once per encounter. This spit attack will usually be reserved until they fail a morale check, in which case all remaining giant cave locusts will spit at their nearest opponent, and then all will attempt to flee in the next round. To spit on an opponent, the giant cave locust rolls an attack against Armor Class 11 (plus Dexterity and magical bonuses, but no normal armor value applies). If the attack hits, the target must save vs. Poison or be unable to do anything for 3d6 rounds due to the horrible smell.

Caveman
Armor Class: 12
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d8 or weapon + 1
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d10, Wild 10d4, Lair 10d4
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: C
XP: 75

Cavemen are a species closely related to humans; they are shorter and stockier, and much more heavily muscled. They do not all actually live in caves. Whether they are actually less intelligent than “normal” humans or not is a matter of debate, but it is true that they do not have the facility for language as other human, demi-human and humanoid races.

Centaur
Armor Class: 15 (13)
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 2 hooves/1 weapon
Damage: 1d6/1d6/1d6 or by weapon
Movement: 50' Unarmored 60' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 2d10
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: A
XP: 240

Centaurs appear to be half man, half horse, having the torso, arms and head of a man in the position a horse's head would otherwise occupy. A centaur is as big as a heavy horse, but much taller and slightly heavier; average males are about 7 feet tall and weigh about 2,100 pounds, and females are just a bit smaller. Centaurs may charge with a spear or lance just as a man on horseback, with the same bonuses. They typically wear leather armor when prepared for combat.

Centaurs are generally haughty and aloof, but very honorable. Most would rather die than allow humans, demi-humans, or humanoids to ride on their backs.

Centipede, Giant
Armor Class: 11
Hit Dice: 1d4 Hit Points*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: poison
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 2d4, Wild 2d4, Lair 2d4
Save As: Normal Man
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 13

Giant centipedes are larger versions of the normal sort, being 2 to 3 feet long. Centipedes are fast-moving, predatory, venomous arthropods, having long segmented bodies with exoskeletons. They prefer to live in underground areas, shadowy forested areas, and other places out of direct sunlight; however, there are desert-dwelling varieties that hide under the sand waiting for prey to wander by.

Giant centipedes tend to attack anything that resembles food, biting with their jaws and injecting their poison. Those bitten by a giant centipede must save vs. Poison at +2 or die.

Cheetah
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d4/1d4/2d4
Movement: 100'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 75

A Cheetah is one of the fastest land animals - a large (about 100 pounds) cat capable of reaching up to 75 miles per hour when running. It hunts alone or in small groups (usually composed of siblings). It will rarely attack humans unless compelled to do so, but a female will ferociously defend her young.

Chimera
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 9** (+8)
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/3 heads + special
Damage: 1d4/1d4/2d4/2d4/3d4 + special
Movement: 40' (10') Fly 60' (15')
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 9
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: F
XP: 1,225

Chimeras are strange creatures having a lion's body with the heads of a lion, a goat, and a dragon, and the wings of a dragon. A chimera is about 5 feet tall at the shoulder, nearly 10 feet long, and weighs about 4,000 pounds. A chimera’s dragon head might be black, blue, green, red, or white, and has the same type of breath weapon as that sort of dragon. Regardless of type, the dragon's head breathes a 50' long cone with a 10' wide end, for 3d6 points of damage; victims may save vs. Dragon Breath for one-half damage.

Chimeras are cruel and voracious. They can speak Dragon but seldom bother to do so, except when toadying to more powerful creatures.

Cockatrice
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 5**
No. of Attacks: 1 beak + special
Damage: 1d6 + petrification
Movement: 30' Fly 60' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d8, Lair 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: D
XP: 450

A cockatrice is a strange creature, appearing to be a chicken (hen or rooster) with a long serpentine neck and tail; the neck is topped by a more or less normal looking chicken head.

A male cockatrice has wattles and a comb, just like a rooster. Females, much rarer than males, differ only in that they have no wattles or comb. A cockatrice weighs about 25 pounds. A cockatrice is no more intelligent than any animal, but they are bad-tempered and prone to attack if disturbed.

Anyone touched by a cockatrice, or who touches one (even if gloved), must save vs. Petrification or be turned to stone.

Crab, Giant
Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 3
No. of Attacks: 2 pincers
Damage: 2d6/2d6
Movement: 20' Swim 20'
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 145

Giant crabs naturally resemble the ordinary variety, but are much larger, averaging 5' in diameter (not counting their legs). These creatures are often found in water-filled caves, particularly those connected to a river, lake or sea, and are tolerant of both fresh and salt water. Also, they are able to live in stagnant water, though they prefer a better environment.

Giant crabs carry their eyes on armored stalks, which means that no bonus is awarded for attacking them from behind.

Crocodile
Normal Large Giant
Armor Class: 15 17 19
Hit Dice: 2 6 15 (+11)
No. of Attacks: 1 bite 1 bite 1 bite
Damage: 1d8 2d8 3d8
Movement: 30' (10') Swim 30' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d8 Wild 1d4 Wild 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 2 Fighter: 6 Fighter: 15
Morale: 7 8 9
Treasure Type: None None None
XP: 75 500 2,850

Crocodiles are aggressive predators 11 to 12 feet long. They lie mostly submerged in rivers or marshes, with only their eyes and nostrils showing, waiting for prey to come within reach; when in their natural element, they surprise on 1-4 on 1d6.

Large Crocodiles: These huge creatures are from 12-20 feet long. Large crocodiles fight and behave like their smaller cousins.

Giant Crocodiles: These huge creatures usually live in salt water and are generally more than 20 feet long. Giant crocodiles fight and behave like their smaller cousins.

Dinosaur, Deinonychus
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 3
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d8
Movement: 50'
No. Appearing: 1d3, Wild 2d3, Lair 2d6
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 145

The Deinonychus (sometimes mistakenly called a "Velociraptor") is a medium-sized feathered dinosaur weighting approximately 150 pounds and reaching about 11 feet of length (tail included). It is an avid predator and a skilled pack-hunter; its warm blood, aerodynamic build and vicious maw allow it to feed on larger but more primitive dinosaurs.

Dinosaur, Pterodactyl (and Pteranodon)
Pterodactyl Pteranodon
Armor Class: 12 13
Hit Dice: 1 5
No. of Attacks: 1 bite 1 bite
Damage: 1d4 2d6
Movement: Fly 60' (10') Fly 60' (15')
No. Appearing: Wild 2d4 Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 1 Fighter: 3
Morale: 7 8
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 25 360

Pterodactyls are prehistoric winged reptilian creatures, having a wingspan of around 25 to 30 inches. Though they eat mostly fish, they may attack smaller characters or scavenge unguarded packs.

Pteranodons are essentially giant-sized pterodactyls, having wingspans of 25 feet or more. They are predators, and may attack adventuring parties.

Dinosaur, Stegosaurus
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 11 (+9)
No. of Attacks: 1 tail/1 bite or 1 trample
Damage: 2d8/1d6 or 2d8
Movement: 20' (15')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,575

Although fearsome looking, the stegosaurus is actually a peaceable creature and will only fight in self-defense, either biting, trampling, or using its spiked tail, depending on where the opponent is standing in relation to the dinosaur. A stegosaurus can't use its tail and bite attacks against the same creature in the same round.

Dinosaur, Triceratops
Armor Class: 19
Hit Dice: 11 (+9)
No. of Attacks: 1 gore or 1 trample
Damage: 3d6 or 3d6 (special, see below)
Movement: 30' (15')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 7
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,575

A triceratops is a three-horned herbivorous dinosaur. They are aggressive toward interlopers, attacking anyone who might appear to be a threat. These creatures are about 25 feet long and weigh about 20,000 pounds. A triceratops will usually attempt to trample smaller opponents. Up to two adjacent man-sized or up to four smaller opponents may be trampled simultaneously; the triceratops rolls a single attack roll which is compared to the Armor Class of each of the potential victims, and then rolls a separate damage roll for each one successfully hit. The gore attack may only be used against a single man-sized or larger creature, but may be used in the same round as the trample if the creature being gored is larger than man sized. Also note that a charging bonus may be applied to the gore attack.

Dinosaur, Tyrannosaurus Rex
Armor Class: 23
Hit Dice: 18 (+12)
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 6d6
Movement: 40' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 9
Morale: 11
Treasure Type: None
XP: 4,000

The tyrannosaurus rex is a bipedal carnivorous dinosaur. Despite its enormous size and 6-ton weight, a tyrannosaurus is a swift runner. Its head is nearly 6 feet long, and its teeth are from 3 to 6 inches in length. It is slightly more than 30 feet long from nose to tail. A tyrannosaurus pursues and eats just about anything it sees. Its tactics are simple – charge in and bite.

The statistics above can also be used to represent other large bipedal carnosaurs, such as the allosaurus.

Displacer
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 6*
No. of Attacks: 2 blades
Damage: 1d8/1d8
Movement: 50'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: D
XP: 555

Displacers are blue-black, catlike monsters with strange bladed winglike arms extending from their shoulders. The blades are carried folded back like wings, but the Displacer swings the blades around in front to attack.

The real power and danger of the Displacer is its power of displacement, which causes the monster's apparent location to shift around constantly over a range of 3' from the monster's true location. This is a form of illusion, but a powerful form that cannot be seen through even by those who know the secret.

Any character fighting a Displacer for the first time will miss his or her first strike regardless of the die roll. Thereafter, all attacks against displacers will be at a penalty of -2 to the attack roll. This is not cumulative with the penalty for fighting blind. Some monsters, such as bats, do not depend on vision to fight and thus may be able to perceive the monster's true location and fight without penalty.

Djinni*
Armor Class: 15 ‡
Hit Dice: 7+1**
No. of Attacks: 1 fist or 1 whirlwind
Damage: 2d8 or 2d6
Movement: 30' Fly 80'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 12
Morale: 12 (8)
Treasure Type: None
XP: 800

The djinn (singular djinni) are humanoid creatures from the Elemental Plane of Air. A djinni in its natural form is about 10½ feet tall and weighs about 1,000 pounds.

Djinn disdain physical combat, preferring to use their magical powers and aerial abilities against foes. A djinni overmatched in combat usually takes flight and becomes a whirlwind (see below) to harass those who follow; the 12 morale reflects a djinni's absolute control over its own fear, but does not indicate that the creature will throw its life away easily. Use the “8” figure to determine whether an outmatched djinn decides to leave a combat.

Djinn have a number of magical powers, which can be used at will (that is, without needing magic words or gestures): create food and drink, creating tasty and nourishing food for up to 2d6 humans or similar creatures, once per day; become invisible, with unlimited uses per day; create normal items, creating up to 1,000 pounds of soft goods or wooden items of permanent nature or metal goods lasting at most a day, once per day; assume gaseous form, as the potion, up to one hour per day; and create illusions, as the spell phantasmal force but including sound as well as visual elements, three times per day.

Djinn may assume the form of a whirlwind at will, with no limit as to the number of times per day this power may be used; a djinni in whirlwind form fights as if it were an air elemental.

Due to their highly magical nature, djinn cannot be harmed by non-magical weapons. They are immune to normal cold, and suffer only half damage from magical attacks based on either cold or wind.

Dog
Normal Riding
Armor Class: 14 14
Hit Dice: 1+1 2
No. of Attacks: 1 bite 1 bite
Damage: 1d4 + hold 1d4+1 + hold
Movement: 50' 50'
No. Appearing: Wild 3d4 domestic only
Save As: Fighter: 1 Fighter: 2
Morale: 9 9
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 25 75

Normal dogs include most medium and large breeds, including wild dogs. After biting an opponent, a dog can hold on, doing 1d4 damage automatically every round, until killed or until the victim spends an attack breaking free (which requires a save vs. Death Ray, adjusted by the character's Strength bonus).

Riding dogs are a large breed, used primarily by Halflings for transport. They may be trained for war, and equipped with barding to improve their Armor Class. They can maintain a hold in the same way that normal dogs do. A light load for a riding dog is up to 150 pounds; a heavy load, up to 300 pounds.

Doppleganger
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 4*
No. of Attacks: 1 fist
Damage: 1d12 or by weapon
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: E
XP: 280

Dopplegangers are strange beings that are able to take on the shapes of those they encounter; they can also read minds (as the spell, ESP, but with no limit of duration). In its natural form, the creature looks more or less humanoid, but slender and frail, with gangly limbs and half-formed features. The flesh is pale and hairless. Its large, bulging eyes are yellow with slitted pupils. A doppleganger is hardy, with a natural agility not in keeping with its frail appearance. In its natural form a doppleganger is about 5½ feet tall and weighs about 150 pounds.

Dopplegangers make excellent use of their natural mimicry to stage ambushes, bait traps, and infiltrate humanoid society. Although not usually evil, they are interested only in themselves and regard all others as playthings to be manipulated and deceived.

When in its natural form, a doppleganger strikes with its powerful fists. In the shape of a warrior or some other armed person, it attacks with whatever weapon is appropriate. In such cases, it uses its mind reading power to employ the same tactics and strategies as the person it is impersonating.

Dragon

Dragons are large (sometimes very large) winged reptilian monsters. Unlike wyverns, dragons have four legs as well as two wings; this is how experts distinguish “true” dragons from other large reptilian monsters. All dragons are long-lived, and they grow slowly for as long as they live. For this reason, they are described as having seven “age categories,” ranging from 3 less to 3 more hit dice than the average. For convenience, a table is provided following the description of each dragon type; this table shows the variation in hit dice, damage from their various attacks, and other features peculiar to dragons.

If one dragon is encountered, it is equally likely to be a male or female ranging from -2 to +3 hit dice (1d6-3); two are a mated pair ranging from -1 to +2 hit dice (1d4-2). If three or four are encountered, they consist of a mated pair plus one or two young of -3 hit dice in size. If this is the case, the parents receive a Morale of 12 in combat since they are protecting their young.

A dragon attacks with its powerful claws and bite, its long, whiplike tail, and most famously with its breath weapon. It prefers to fight on the wing, staying out of reach until it has worn down the enemy with the breath weapon (or possibly with spells, if the dragon can cast any). Older, more intelligent dragons are adept at sizing up the opposition and eliminating the most dangerous foes first (or avoiding them while picking off weaker enemies).

Each dragon can use its breath weapon as many times per day as it has hit dice, except that dragons of the lowest age category do not yet have a breath weapon. The breath may be used no more often than every other round, and the dragon may use its claws and tail at the same time. The tail swipe attack may only be used if there are opponents behind the dragon, while the claws may be used only on those opponents in front of the creature. Due to their serpentine necks, dragons may bite in any direction, even behind them.

The breath weapon of a dragon does 1d8 points of damage per hit die (so, a 7 hit die dragon does 7d8 points of damage with its breath). Victims may make a save vs. Dragon Breath for half damage. The breath weapon may be projected in any direction around the dragon, even behind, for the same reason that the dragon can bite those behind it.

There are three shapes (or areas of effect) which a dragon's breath weapon can cover. Each variety has a “normal” shape, which that type of dragon can use from the second age category (-2 hit dice) onward. Upon reaching the sixth age category (+2 hit dice), a dragon learns to shape its breath weapon into one of the other shapes (GM's option); at the seventh age category (+3 hit dice), the dragon is competent at producing all three shapes.

The shapes are:

Cone Shaped: The breath weapon begins at the dragon's mouth, and is about 2' wide at that point; it extends up to the maximum length (based on the dragon type and age) and is the maximum width at that point (again, as given for the dragon's type and age).

Line Shaped: The breath weapon is 5' wide and extends the given length in a straight line.

Cloud Shaped: The breath weapon covers an area up to the maximum given width (based on the dragon type and age) in both length and width (that is, the length figure given for the dragon type and age is ignored). A cloud-shaped breath weapon is, at most, 20' deep or high.

All dragons save for those of the lowest age category are able to speak Dragon. Each type has a given chance of “talking;” this is the chance that the dragon will know Common or a demi-human or humanoid language. Many who talk choose to learn Elvish. If the first roll for “talking” is successful, the GM may roll again, with each additional roll adding another language which the dragon may speak.

Some dragons learn to cast spells; the odds that a dragon can cast spells are the same as the odds that a dragon will learn to speak to lesser creatures, but each is rolled for separately.

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Although goals and ideals vary among varieties, all dragons are covetous. They like to hoard wealth, collecting mounds of coins and gathering as many gems, jewels, and magic items as possible. Those with large hoards are loath to leave them for long, venturing out of their lairs only to patrol the immediate area or to get food. For dragons, there is no such thing as enough treasure. It’s pleasing to look at, and they bask in its radiance. Dragons like to make beds of their hoards, shaping nooks and mounds to fit their bodies. Note that, for most monsters, the Treasure Type given is for a lair of average numbers; for dragons, the Treasure Type is for a single individual of average age. Note also that mated pairs do not share treasure! Rather than adjusting the treasure amounts for the number of monsters, adjust for the age of the dragon; a dragon of the highest age category would have about double the given amount, while one of the next to lowest age category would have perhaps a tenth that amount (hatchlings have no treasure).

Dragon, Black
Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 7**
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite or breath/1 tail
Damage: 1d6/1d6/2d10 or breath/1d6
Movement: 30' Fly 80' (15')
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 7 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: H
XP: 800

Black dragons prefer to ambush their targets, using their surroundings as cover. When fighting in heavily forested swamps and marshes, they try to stay in the water or on the ground; trees and leafy canopies limit their aerial maneuverability. When outmatched, a black dragon attempts to fly out of sight, so as not to leave tracks, and hide in a deep pond or bog. Black dragons are more cruel than white dragons, but are still motivated mostly by the urge to live, breed and collect valuable items.

Black dragons often choose to hide underwater, leaving only part of the head above the waterline, and leap up suddenly when prey comes within 100' (surprising on a roll of 1-4 on 1d6 in this case).

Black dragons are immune to all forms of acid. A black dragon may hold its breath up to three turns while lying in wait underwater.

Black Dragon Age Table

Age Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hit Dice 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Attack Bonus +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +8 +9
Breath Weapon Acid (Line)
Length - 70' 80' 90' 95' 100' 100'
Width - 25' 30' 30' 35' 40' 45'
Chance/Talking 0% 15% 20% 25% 35% 50% 60%
Spells by Level
Level 1 - 1 2 4 4 4 4
Level 2 - - - - 1 2 3
Level 3 - - - - - 1 2
Claw 1d4 1d4 1d6 1d6 1d6 1d8 1d8
Bite 2d4 2d6 2d8 2d10 2d10 2d10 2d12
Tail 1d4 1d4 1d4 1d6 1d6 1d8 1d8
Dragon, Blue
Armor Class: 20
Hit Dice: 9** (+8)
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite or breath/1 tail
Damage: 1d8/1d8/3d8 or breath/1d8
Movement: 30' Fly 80' (15')
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 9 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: H
XP: 1,225

Blue dragons love to soar in the hot desert air, usually flying in the daytime when temperatures are highest. Some nearly match the color of the desert sky and use this coloration to their advantage. Their vibrant color makes blue dragons easy to spot in barren desert surroundings. However, they often burrow into the sand so only part of their heads are exposed, waiting until opponents come within 100 feet to spring out and attack (surprising on a roll of 1-4 on 1d6 in this case).

Blue dragons lair in vast underground caverns, where they also store their treasure. Although they collect anything that looks valuable, they are most fond of gems, especially sapphires. Blue dragons are evil monsters, though not so fierce as red dragons. They particularly enjoy tricking intelligent prey into entering their lairs or passing by their hiding places to be ambushed and killed; usually one member of a party attacked by a blue dragon will be left alive for a while, and the dragon will play with that person as a cat plays with a mouse.

Blue dragons are immune to normal lightning, and suffer only half damage from magical lightning.

Blue Dragon Age Table
Age Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hit Dice 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Attack Bonus +6 +7 +8 +8 +9 +9 +10
Breath Weapon Lightning (Line)
Length - 80' 90' 100' 100' 110' 120'
Width - 30' 35' 45' 50' 55' 60'
Chance/Talking 0% 15% 20% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Spells by Level
Level 1 - 1 2 4 4 4 5
Level 2 - - 1 2 3 4 4
Level 3 - - - - 1 2 2
Level 4 - - - - - - 1
Claw 1d4 1d4 1d6 1d8 1d8 1d8 1d10
Bite 2d6 3d6 3d8 3d8 3d8 3d8 3d10
Tail 1d4 1d6 1d6 1d8 1d8 1d8 1d8
Dragon, Gold
Armor Class: 22
Hit Dice: 11** (+9)
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite or breath/1 tail
Damage: 2d4/2d4/6d6 or breath/2d4
Movement: 30' Fly 80' (20')
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 11 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: H
XP: 1,765

Gold dragons usually parley before fighting. Those having spellcasting ability make heavy use of spells in combat. Among their favorites are cloudkill, sleep, and slow.

All gold dragons have the power to assume human form at will (in a manner equivalent to the spell polymorph self, but performed at will).

Unlike many other dragons, gold dragons are not cruel and do not seek to kill for pleasure. Many tales are told of gold dragons offering assistance to adventurers. They are, however, every bit as avaricious as any dragon; adventurers in need of gold need not bother asking for a loan.

Gold dragons are immune to all poisons, as well as normal fire. They suffer only half damage from magical fire.

Gold Dragon Age Table
Age Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hit Dice 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Attack Bonus +8 +8 +9 +9 +10 +11 +11
Breath Weapon Fire or Poison Gas (Cone)
Length - 70' 80' 90' 95' 100' 110'
Width - 30' 35' 45' 50' 55' 60'
Chance/Talking 0% 35% 70% 85% 90% 95% 95%
Spells by Level
Level 1 - 1 2 3 4 5 6
Level 2 - - 1 2 3 4 5
Level 3 - - - 1 2 3 4
Level 4 - - - - 1 2 3
Level 5 - - - - - 1 2
Level 6 - - - - - - 1
Claw 1d6 1d6 1d6 2d4 2d4 2d6 2d8
Bite 3d6 4d6 5d6 6d6 6d6 7d6 7d6
Tail 1d4 1d6 1d6 2d4 2d6 2d6 2d8
Dragon, Green
Armor Class: 19
Hit Dice: 8**
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite or breath/1 tail
Damage: 1d6/1d6/3d8 or breath/1d6
Movement: 30' Fly 80' (15')
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 8 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: H
XP: 1,015

Green dragons initiate fights with little or no provocation, picking on creatures of any size. If the target is intriguing or seems formidable, the dragon stalks the creature to determine the best time to strike and the most appropriate tactics to use. If the target appears weak, the dragon makes its presence known quickly – it enjoys evoking terror.

Green dragons especially like to question adventurers to learn more about their society and abilities, what is going on in the countryside, and if there is treasure nearby. Adventurers may be allowed to live so long as they remain interesting… but woe to them when the dragon becomes bored.

Green dragons are immune to all poisons. Note that, despite their breath weapon being described as "poison gas," damage done by it is exactly the same as with other dragons. More specifically, those in the area of effect do not have to "save or die" as with ordinary poison, but rather save vs. Breath Weapon for half damage.

Green Dragon Age Table
Age Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hit Dice 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Attack Bonus +5 +6 +7 +8 +8 +9 +9
Breath Weapon Poison Gas (Cloud)
Length - 70' 80' 90' 95' 100' 100'
Width - 25' 30' 40' 45' 50' 55'
Chance/Talking 0% 15% 20% 30% 45% 55% 65%
Spells by Level
Level 1 - 1 2 3 3 4 4
Level 2 - - 1 2 3 3 4
Level 3 - - - - 1 2 3
Level 4 - - - - - - 1
Claw 1d4 1d6 1d6 1d6 1d6 1d8 1d10
Bite 2d4 3d4 3d6 3d8 3d8 3d8 3d10
Tail 1d4 1d4 1d6 1d6 1d6 1d8 1d8
Dragon, Red
Armor Class: 21
Hit Dice: 10** (+9)
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite or breath/1 tail
Damage: 1d8/1d8/4d8 or breath/1d8
Movement: 30' Fly 80' (20')
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 10 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: H
XP: 1,480

Because red dragons are so confident, they seldom pause to appraise an adversary. On spotting a target, they make a snap decision whether to attack, using one of many strategies worked out ahead of time. A red dragon lands to attack small, weak creatures with its claws and bite rather than obliterating them with its breath weapon, so as not to destroy any treasure they might be carrying.

Red dragons are cruel monsters, actively seeking to hunt, torment, kill and consume intelligent creatures. They are often said to prefer women and elves, but in truth a red dragon will attack almost any creature less powerful than itself.

Red dragons are immune to normal fire, and suffer only half damage from magical fire.

Red Dragon Age Table
Age Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hit Dice 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Attack Bonus +7 +8 +8 +9 +9 +10 +11
Breath Weapon Fire (Cone)
Length - 70' 80' 90' 95' 100' 110'
Width - 30' 35' 45' 50' 55' 60'
Chance/Talking 0% 15% 30% 50% 60% 70% 85%
Spells by Level
Level 1 - 1 2 3 4 5 5
Level 2 - - 1 2 3 4 5
Level 3 - - - 1 2 2 3
Level 4 - - - - 1 2 2
Level 5 - - - - - 1 2
Claw 1d4 1d6 1d8 1d8 1d8 1d10 1d10
Bite 2d6 3d6 4d6 4d8 5d8 5d8 6d8
Tail 1d4 1d6 1d6 1d8 1d8 1d8 1d10
Dragon, Sea
Armor Class: 19
Hit Dice: 8**
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite or breath
Damage: 1d6/1d6/3d8 or breath
Movement: 10' Fly 60' (20') Swim 60' (15')
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 8 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: H
XP: 1,015

Though they live in the water and are somewhat adapted to it, Sea Dragons still must breathe air, similar to dolphins or whales. A Sea Dragon may hold its breath up to three turns while swimming or performing other moderate activity.

These dragons have much the same physical structure as other dragons, but their feet are webbed and their tails are short, flat and broad; these adaptations help the sea dragon swim efficiently, but severely limit their ability to walk on dry land. Unlike other dragons, sea dragons do not have a tail attack. The breath weapon of a sea dragon is a cloud of steam; they are immune to damage from non-magical steam (including the breath weapon of another sea dragon), and suffer only half damage from magical steam attacks.

Young sea dragons are light bluish-gray in color (similar to dolphins), darkening to a deep slate color in older individuals.

Sea dragons are neutral in outlook, in much the same way as white dragons. They often maintain lairs in air-filled undersea caverns.

Sea Dragon Age Table
Age Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hit Dice 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Attack Bonus +5 +6 +7 +8 +8 +9 +9
Breath Weapon Steam (Cloud)
Length - 70' 80' 90' 95' 100' 100'
Width - 25' 30' 40' 45' 50' 55'
Chance/Talking 0% 15% 20% 30% 45% 55% 65%
Spells by Level
Level 1 - 1 2 3 3 4 4
Level 2 - - 1 2 3 3 4
Level 3 - - - - - 1 2
Claw 1d4 1d6 1d6 1d6 1d6 1d8 1d10
Bite 2d4 3d4 3d6 3d8 3d8 3d8 3d10
Dragon, White
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 6**
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite or breath/1 tail
Damage: 1d4/1d4/2d8 or breath/1d4
Movement: 30' Fly 80' (10')
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 6 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: H
XP: 610

White Dragons prefer to live in cold regions, whether in the highest mountains or in the cold northern lands. They are the least intelligent of dragons, though this does not mean that they are stupid by any stretch of the imagination. They are motivated completely by a drive to live, to reproduce, and (of course) to accumulate treasure; they kill to live, not for pleasure.

White dragons prefer sudden assaults, swooping down from aloft or bursting from beneath water, snow, or ice. Typically, a white dragon begins with its icy breath weapon, then tries to eliminate a single opponent with a follow-up attack.

White dragons are immune to normal cold, and take only half damage from magical cold or ice.

White Dragon Age Table
Age Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hit Dice 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Attack Bonus +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +8
Breath Weapon Cold (Cone)
Length - 60' 70' 80' 85' 90' 95'
Width - 25' 30' 30' 35' 40' 45'
Chance/Talking 0% 10% 15% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Spells by Level
Level 1 - 1 2 3 3 3 3
Level 2 - - - - 1 2 3
Level 3 - - - - - - 1
Claw 1d4 1d4 1d4 1d4 1d4 1d6 1d8
Bite 2d4 2d6 2d6 2d8 2d8 2d10 2d10
Tail 1d4 1d4 1d4 1d4 1d4 1d6 1d6
Dragon Turtle
Armor Class: 22
Hit Dice: 30**
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite or breath
Damage: 2d8/2d8/10d6 or 30d8
Movement: 10' (10') Swim 30' (15')
No. Appearing: Wild 1
Save As: Fighter: 20 at +5
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: H
XP: 13,650

A dragon turtle's rough, deep green shell is much the same color as the deep water the monster favors, and the silver highlights that line the shell resemble light dancing on open water. The turtle’s legs, tail, and head are a lighter green, flecked with golden highlights. An adult dragon turtle can measure from 100 to 200 feet from snout to tail. They are occasionally mistaken for rocky outcroppings or even small islands.

Dragon turtles are fierce fighters and generally attack any creature that threatens their territory or looks like a potential meal. Though they are not true dragons, they do advance through the same sort of age categories as the true dragons do; however, each age category changes the dragon turtle's Hit Dice by 5.

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Due to their massive size, dragon turtles are immune to virtually all poisons.

Dragon Turtle Age Table
Age Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hit Dice 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Attack Bonus +11 +13 +14 +15 +16 +16 +16
Breath Weapon Steam (Cloud)
Length - 50' 75' 100' 125' 150' 175'
Width - 25' 50' 75' 100' 125' 150'
Chance/Talking 0% 15% 20% 30% 45% 55% 65%
Spells by Level
Level 1 - - 1 2 2 3 3
Level 2 - - - 1 2 2 3
Claw 1d6 2d4 2d6 2d8 2d10 2d12 3d10
Bite 4d6 6d6 8d6 10d6 12d6 14d6 16d6
Dryad
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 2*
No. of Attacks: 1
Damage: 1d4
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: Lair 1d6
Save As: Magic-User: 4
Morale: 6
Treasure Type: D
XP: 100

Dryads are female nature spirits; each is mystically bound to a single, enormous oak tree and must never stray more than 300 yards from it. Any who do become ill and die within 4d6 hours. A dryad’s oak does not radiate magic. A dryad lives as long as her tree, and dies when the tree dies; likewise, if the dryad is killed, her tree dies also.

A dryad’s delicate features are much like a female elf's, though her flesh is like bark or fine wood, and her hair is like a canopy of leaves that changes color with the seasons. Although they are generally solitary, up to seven dryads have been encountered in one place on rare occasions.

Shy, intelligent, and resolute, dryads are as elusive as they are alluring -- they avoid physical combat and are rarely seen unless they wish to be. If threatened, or in need of an ally, a dryad can charm (as the spell charm person), attempting to gain control of the attacker(s) who could help the most against the rest. Any attack on her tree, however, provokes the dryad into a frenzied defense.

Eagle, Giant
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d6/1d8
Movement: 10' fly 90'
No. Appearing: 2d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: Nil
XP: 240

A typical giant eagle stands about 10 feet tall, has a wingspan of up to 20 feet, and resembles its smaller cousins in nearly every way except size. It weighs about 500 pounds. Many giant eagles are intelligent creatures and speak Common.

A giant eagle typically attacks from a great height, diving earthward at tremendous speed. When it cannot dive, it uses its powerful talons and slashing beak to strike at its target’s head and eyes.

A solitary giant eagle is typically hunting or patrolling in the vicinity of its nest and generally ignores creatures that do not appear threatening. A mated pair attacks in concert, making repeated diving attacks to drive away intruders, and fights to the death to defend their nest or hatchlings.

Efreeti*
Armor Class: 21 ‡
Hit Dice: 10* (+9)
No. of Attacks: 1
Damage: 2d8 or special
Movement: 30' Fly 80' (10')
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 15
Morale: 12 (9)
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,390

The efreet (singular efreeti) are humanoid creatures from the Elemental Plane of Fire. An efreeti in its natural form stands about 12 feet tall and weighs about 2,000 pounds. Efreet are malicious by nature. They love to mislead, befuddle, and confuse their foes. They do this for enjoyment as much as for tactical reasons.

Note that the 12 morale reflects an efreeti's absolute control over its own fear, but does not indicate that the creature will throw its life away easily. Use the “9” figure to determine whether an outmatched efreeti decides to leave a combat.

Efreet have a number of magical powers, which can be used at will (that is, without needing magic words or gestures): become invisible, with unlimited uses per day; assume gaseous form, as the potion, up to one hour per day; create illusions, as the spell phantasmal force but including sound as well as visual elements, three times per day; create flame, with unlimited uses; and create a wall of fire (as the spell), once per day. Create flame allows the efreet to cause a flame to appear in its hand or otherwise on its person at will; it behaves as desired by the efreet, becoming as large as a torchflame or as small as a candle, and ignites flammable material just as any ordinary flame does. The flame can be thrown as a weapon with a range of up to 60', causing 1d8 points of damage on a successful hit. The efreet can create another flame, and throw it as well if desired, once per round.

Efreet may assume the form of a column of fire at will, with no limit as to the number of times per day this power may be used; an efreeti in flame-form fights as if it were a fire elemental.

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Due to their highly magical nature, efreet cannot be harmed by non-magical weapons. They are immune to normal fire, and suffer only half damage from magical fire attacks.

Elemental*

Elementals are incarnations of the elements that compose existence.

It is possible to summon an elemental by one of three means: By the use of a staff, or of a device, or by casting a spell. For each elemental type, separate statistics are provided for each of these three categories.

Due to their highly magical nature, elementals cannot be harmed by non-magical weapons.

Elemental, Air*
Staff Device Spell
Armor Class: 18 ‡ 20 ‡ 22 ‡
Hit Dice: 8* 12* (+10) 16* (+12)
No. of Attacks: -- special --
Damage: 1d12 2d8 3d6
Movement: -- Fly 120' --
No. Appearing: -- special --
Save As: Fighter: 8 Fighter: 12 Fighter: 16
Morale: -- 10 --
Treasure Type: -- None --
XP: 945 1,975 3,385

Air elementals resemble “dust devils,” that is, small whirlwinds, but they are much more powerful. Air elementals take double damage when attacked by earth-based attacks (including by earth elementals). An air elemental may choose either to attack a single opponent, thus receiving one attack per round at the listed damage, or may choose to knock all opponents in a 5' radius to the ground; if the latter attack is used, all creatures of 2 hit dice or less must save vs. Death Ray or fall prone. Creatures of 3 or more levels or hit dice are not so affected. Air elementals do an additional 1d8 points of damage against creatures or vehicles which are airborne.

Elemental, Earth*
Staff Device Spell
Armor Class: 18 ‡ 20 ‡ 22 ‡
Hit Dice: 8* 12* (+10) 16* (+12)
No. of Attacks: 1 1 1
Damage: 1d12 2d8 3d6
Movement: -- 20' (10') --
No. Appearing: -- special --
Save As: Fighter: 8 Fighter: 12 Fighter: 16
Morale: -- 10 --
Treasure Type: -- None --
XP: 945 1,975 3,385

Earth elementals resemble crude, headless humanoid statues, with clublike hands and feet. They cannot cross a body of water wider than their own height. Earth elementals take double damage when attacked by fire (including fire elementals). They do an additional 1d8 points of damage against creatures, vehicles, or structures which rest on the ground.

Elemental, Fire*
Staff Device Spell
Armor Class: 18 ‡ 20 ‡ 22 ‡
Hit Dice: 8* 12* (+10) 16* (+12)
No. of Attacks: 1 1 1
Damage: 1d12 2d8 3d6
Movement: -- 40' Fly 30' --
No. Appearing: -- special --
Save As: Fighter: 8 Fighter: 12 Fighter: 16
Morale: -- 10 --
Treasure Type: -- None --
XP: 945 1,975 3,385

Fire elementals are simply flames, which may appear generally humanoid for brief moments when they attack. Fire elementals take double damage when attacked by water (including water elementals). They cannot cross a body of water wider than their own diameter. They do an additional 1d8 points of damage against creatures which are cold or icy in nature.

Remember that a fire elemental is constantly burning; such a creature may easily start fires if it moves into an area containing items which burn easily, such as dry wood, paper, or oil. No specific rules are given for such fires, but the GM is directed to the rules for burning oil for an example of fire damage.

Elemental, Water*
Staff Device Spell
Armor Class: 18 ‡ 20 ‡ 22 ‡
Hit Dice: 8* 12* (+10) 16* (+12)
No. of Attacks: 1 1 1
Damage: 1d12 2d8 3d6
Movement: -- 20' (15') Swim 60' --
No. Appearing: -- special --
Save As: Fighter: 8 Fighter: 12 Fighter: 16
Morale: -- 10 --
Treasure Type: -- None --
XP: 945 1,975 3,385

Water elementals resemble roiling waves of water, which seem to fall upon any creature attacked, only to reform the next round. They take double damage when attacked with air or wind attacks (including air elementals). A water elemental cannot move more than 60' from a body of water. They do an extra 1d8 points of damage against creatures, vehicles, or structures which are in the water.

Elephant

Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 9 (+8)
No. of Attacks: 2 tusks or 1 trample
Damage: 2d4/2d4 or 4d8
Movement: 40' (15')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d20
Save As: Fighter: 9
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: special
XP: 1,075

Massive herbivores of tropical lands, elephants are unpredictable creatures but nevertheless are sometimes used as mounts or beasts of burden. This entry describes an African elephant. Indian elephants are slightly smaller and weaker, but more readily trained.

A light load for an African elephant is 7,500 pounds; a heavy load, up to 15,000 pounds. For an Indian elephant, a light load is up to 7,000 pounds, and a heavy load up to 14,000 pounds.

An elephant has no treasure as such, but the tusks of an elephant are worth 1d8 x 100 gp.

Fish, Giant Barracuda
Huge Giant
Armor Class: 16 15
Hit Dice: 5 9 (+8)
No. of Attacks: 1 bite 1 bite
Damage: 2d6 2d8+1
Movement: Swim 60' Swim 60' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 2d4 Wild 1
Save As: Fighter: 5 Fighter: 9
Morale: 8 10
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 360 1,075

Barracuda are predatory fish found in salt water. Huge barracudas are about 12' long, while giant specimens can exceed 20'. They have elongated bodies, pointed heads and prominent jaws. Their bodies are covered with smooth scales, typically blue, gray or silver in color. They have extremely keen eyesight and are surprised only on a 1 on 1d6. Due to the quickness of their attack, barracudas are themselves capable of surprising on 1-3 on 1d6 and gain a +2 bonus to Initiative.

Giant barracudas always appear singly and are 50% likely to break off the attack after 1d4 rounds if they haven't killed their prey. Both kinds are attracted to shiny objects.

Fish, Giant Bass
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d6
Movement: Swim 40' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 75

Giant bass are generally between 10' and 25' long. Most are greenish-grey, marked with dark lateral stripes, though some are almost completely black. They are generally found in lakes or rivers, as they are not adapted for salt water.

Giant bass are predatory, and on a natural attack roll of 20 a giant bass will swallow whole a dwarf-sized or smaller creature, which then takes 2d4 damage per round until it is dead. Swallowed characters can attack only with daggers or similar short weapons. Note that each giant bass can swallow at most one character, and a giant bass which has swallowed a character will attempt to retreat (having achieved its goal).

Fish, Giant Catfish
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 8
No. of Attacks: 1 bite/2 fins
Damage: 2d8/1d4+poison/1d4+poison
Movement: Swim 30' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d2
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 875

Giant catfish fins are edged with a natural poison that causes a painful burning sensation for 3d10 rounds if a save vs. Poison is failed. The pain causes the affected character or creature to suffer a -1 penalty on all attack rolls and saving throws; further poisonings will increase this penalty by -1 each, down to a maximum penalty of -5 as well as adding 6 rounds to the duration of the poison effect.

Because of its large size (15 to 20 feet long) and body design, a giant catfish cannot target more than one of its attacks on any single creature; that is, it cannot bite and fin the same opponent, nor use both fins on one victim.

Fish, Giant Piranha

Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d8
Movement: Swim 50'
No. Appearing: Wild 2d4
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 7 (11)
Treasure Type: None
XP: 240

Giant piranha average 5' in length at adulthood, and are aggressive carnivores. They are able to sense blood in the water just as sharks do, and once they smell or taste blood in the water, their morale rises to the parenthesized figure.

Fly, Giant
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d8
Movement: 30' Fly 60'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 2d6
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 75

Giant flies look much like ordinary houseflies, but are about 3' long. Some are banded yellow and black, and are thus mistaken for giant bees. Giant flies are predators; after killing prey, they will sometimes lay eggs in the remains.

Frog, Giant (and Toad, Giant)
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 1 tongue or 1 bite
Damage: grab or 1d4+1
Movement: 30' Swim 30'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 6
Treasure Type: None
XP: 75

Giant frogs are enlarged versions of the common frog; most resemble bullfrogs in appearance, but an adult giant frog is 3' long and weighs about 250 pounds. They are predators, but will normally only attack creatures smaller than themselves. Giant toads are statistically just like giant frogs; however, they are often found in “drier” areas as they do not have to maintain a wet skin surface.

A giant frog can stretch its tongue out up to 15' and drag up to dwarf-sized prey to its mouth; on every subsequent round, the victim is hit automatically. On a natural 20 attack roll, the victim is swallowed whole, taking 1d6 damage per round thereafter. Each giant frog can swallow only one such victim.

Gargoyle*
Armor Class: 15 ‡
Hit Dice: 4**
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite/1 horn
Damage: 1d4/1d4/1d6/1d4
Movement: 30' Fly 50' (15')
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 2d4, Lair 2d4
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 11
Treasure Type: C
XP: 320

Gargoyles are demonic-looking winged humanoid monsters with gray stone-like skin. They are often mistaken for winged stone statues, for they can remain still indefinitely without moving. Gargoyles use this disguise to ambush their foes, surprising on 1-4 on 1d6 if their foes do not otherwise suspect them. They are cruel monsters, inflicting pain on other creatures for the sole purpose of enjoyment.

Gargoyles require no food, water, or air. Due to their highly magical nature, they can only be harmed by magical weapons.

Gelatinous Cube
Armor Class: 12
Hit Dice: 4*
No. of Attacks: 1
Damage: 2d4 + paralysis
Movement: 20'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: V
XP: 280

The nearly transparent gelatinous cube travels slowly along dungeon corridors and cave floors, absorbing carrion, creatures, and trash. Inorganic material remains trapped and visible inside the cube’s body. A typical gelatinous cube is ten feet on a side and weighs about 15,000 pounds; however, smaller specimens have been reported.

A gelatinous cube attacks by slamming its body into its prey. It is capable of lashing out with a pseudopod, but usually engulfs foes. Any character hit by a gelatinous cube must save vs. Paralyzation or be paralyzed for 2d4 turns.

Any treasure indicated will be visible inside the creature, which must be slain if the treasure is to be recovered.

Ghast
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 2**
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d4/1d4/1d4 + paralysis + stench
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d4 Wild/Lair 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: B
XP: 125

Although these creatures look just like their lesser kin, the ghoul, they are far more deadly and cunning. Those hit by a ghast’s bite or claw attack must save vs. Paralyzation or be paralyzed for 2d8 turns. Elves are immune to this paralysis. Ghasts try to attack with surprise whenever possible, striking from behind tombstones and bursting from shallow graves; when these methods are employed, they are able to surprise opponents on 1-3 on 1d6. They are undead, and thus are immune to sleep, charm and hold magics. They may be Turned by Clerics using the same column as the ghoul. As they are superior to ghouls, in a mixed group of ghasts and ghouls the GM should apply Turning effects to the ordinary ghouls first.

Humanoids bitten by ghasts may be infected with ghast fever. Each time a humanoid is bitten, there is a 10% chance of the infection being passed. The afflicted humanoid is allowed to save vs. Death Ray; if the save is failed, the humanoid dies within a day.

An afflicted humanoid who dies of ghast fever rises as a ghast at the next midnight. A humanoid who becomes a ghast in this way retains none of the knowledge or abilities he or she possessed in life. The newly-risen ghast is not under the control of any other ghasts, but hungers for the flesh of the living and behaves like any other ghast in all respects.

The stink of death and corruption surrounding these creatures is overwhelming. Living creatures within 10 feet must succeed on a save vs. Poison or be sickened for 2d6 rounds (-2 to attack rolls). A creature that successfully saves cannot be affected again by the same ghast’s stench for 24 hours. A neutralize poison spell removes the effect from a sickened creature.

Ghost*

Armor Class: 20 ‡
Hit Dice: 10* (+9)
No. of Attacks: 1 touch/1 gaze
Damage: 1d8 + special
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 10
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: E, N, O
XP: 1,390

Ghosts are the spectral remnants of intelligent beings who, for one reason or another, cannot rest easily in their graves. A ghost normally resembles the form it had in life, but sometimes the spiritual form is altered. For instance, the ghost of someone who believed he or she was evil might look a bit demonic. Because they are incorporeal, ghosts may be hit only by magical weapons.

Seeing a ghost is so terrible that the victim must save vs. Spells or flee for 2d6 rounds. A character or creature who successfully saves vs. a given ghost's fear attack may not be so affected by that ghost again, but of course may still be affected by another.

A ghost that hits a living target with its touch attack does 1d8 points of damage, and at the same time regenerates the same number of hit points. In addition, the victim loses 1 Constitution point. Elves and dwarves (and other long-lived creatures such as dragons) are allowed a saving throw vs. Death Ray to resist this effect, which must be rolled on each hit. Characters who lose Constitution appear to have aged. If a ghost is fighting a living creature which does not have a Constitution score, the GM should assign whatever score he or she sees fit.

Lost Constitution can be regained at a rate of one point per casting of restoration; nothing else (except a wish) can restore Constitution lost to a ghost. If a character's Constitution falls to 0, he or she dies permanently and cannot be raised (but still may be reincarnated).

Once per turn, a ghost can use telekinesis (as the spell) as if it were a 10th level Magic-User.

Instead of attacking, a ghost may attempt to possess a living creature. This ability is similar to a magic jar spell (as if cast by a 10th level Magic-User), except that it does not require a receptacle. To use this ability, the ghost must be able to move into the target (so it is possible to outrun it). The target can resist the attack with a successful save vs. Spells. A creature that successfully saves is immune to being possessed by that ghost for 24 hours. If the save fails, the ghost enters the target's body and controls it; control may be maintained until the ghost chooses to leave the victim's body, or until it is driven out by means of a remove curse spell. While it is possessing a living creature, a ghost may not use any of its special abilities.

Ghoul
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 2*
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d4/1d4/1d4, all plus paralysis
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 2d8, Lair 2d8
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: B
XP: 100

Ghouls are undeadmonsters which eat the flesh of dead humanoids to survive. They are vile, disgusting carrion-eaters, but are more than willing to kill for food. Those slain by ghouls will generally be stored until they begin to rot before the ghouls will actually eat them.

Those hit by a ghoul’s bite or claw attack must save vs. Paralyzation or be paralyzed for 2d8 turns. Elves are immune to this paralysis. Ghouls try to attack with surprise whenever possible, striking from behind tombstones and bursting from shallow graves; when these methods are employed, they are able to surprise opponents on 1-3 on 1d6. Like all undead, they may be Turned by Clerics and are immune to sleep, charm and hold magics.

Humanoids bitten by ghouls may be infected with ghoul fever. Each time a humanoid is bitten, there is a 5% chance of the infection being passed. The afflicted humanoid is allowed to save vs. Death Ray; if the save is failed, the humanoid dies within a day.

An afflicted humanoid who dies of ghoul fever rises as a ghoul at the next midnight. A humanoid who becomes a ghoul in this way retains none of the knowledge or abilities he or she possessed in life. The newly-risen ghoul is not under the control of any other ghouls, but hungers for the flesh of the living and behaves like any other ghoul in all respects.

Giant, Cloud
Armor Class: 19 (13)
Hit Dice: 12+3* (+10)
No. of Attacks: 1 giant weapon or 1 thrown rock
Damage: 6d6 or 3d6
Movement: 20' Unarmored 40' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 12
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: E plus 1d12x1000 gp
XP: 1,975

Cloud giants’ skin ranges in color from milky white to light sky blue. They have hair of silvery white or brass, and their eyes are iridescent blue. Adult males are about 18 feet tall and weigh about 5,000 pounds. Females are slightly shorter and lighter. Cloud giants can live to be 400 years old.

Cloud giants dress in the finest clothing available and wear jewelry. To many, appearance indicates station: The better the clothes and the finer the jewelry, the more important the wearer. They also appreciate music, and most can play one or more instruments (the harp is a favorite). Like most giants, they are suspicious of the smaller races, but cloud giants do not usually prey upon them, preferring instead to demand tribute from humans, demi-humans, or humanoids living nearby.

Cloud giants fight in well-organized units, using carefully developed battle plans. They prefer to fight from a position above their opponents. Cloud giants can throw large stones up to 200' for 3d6 points of damage each. Also, 5% of cloud giants have the abilities of a Magic-User of level 2 to 8 (2d4). A favorite tactic is to circle the enemies, barraging them with rocks while the giants with magical abilities confound them with spells. In battle, cloud giants wear finely crafted, intricately engraved plate mail.

Giant, Cyclops
Armor Class: 15 (13)
Hit Dice: 13* (+10)
No. of Attacks: 1 giant club or 1 rock (thrown)
Damage: 3d10 or 3d6
Movement: 20' Unarmored 30'
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 13
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: E plus 1d8x1000 gp
XP: 2,285

A cyclops is a one-eyed giant. Huge and brutish, they most resemble hill giants, and even dress in the same “style,” layers of crudely prepared hides with the fur left on, unwashed and unrepaired.

They are reclusive and unfriendly to almost all of the smaller races.

A cyclops can throw a large rock up to 200' for 3d6 points of damage, but they aim poorly and thus suffer an attack penalty of -2. Once per year, a cyclops can cast the spell bestow curse (the reverse of the spell remove curse).

Giant, Fire
Armor Class: 17 (13)
Hit Dice: 11+2* (+9)
No. of Attacks: 1 giant weapon or 1 thrown rock
Damage: 5d6 or 3d6
Movement: 20' Unarmored 40' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 11
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: E plus 1d10x1000 gp
XP: 1,670

An adult male fire giant is 14 feet tall, has a chest that measures 9 feet around, and weighs about 3,200 pounds. Females are slightly shorter and lighter. Fire giants can live to be 350 years old. Fire giants wear sturdy cloth or leather garments colored red, orange, yellow, or black. Warriors wear helmets and half-plate armor of blackened steel.

Fire giants are unfriendly to almost all other human, demi-human, and humanoid races, though they sometimes subjugate nearby humanoid races to act as their servants.

A fire giant can throw large stones up to 200' for 3d6 damage. Fire giants are immune to all fire-based attacks.

Giant, Frost
Armor Class: 17 (13)
Hit Dice: 10+1* (+9)
No. of Attacks: 1 giant weapon or 1 thrown rock
Damage: 4d6 or 3d6
Movement: 20' Unarmored 40' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 10
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: E plus 1d10x1000 gp
XP: 1,390

Frost giants have pale, almost white skin. A frost giant’s hair can be light blue or dirty yellow, and its eyes usually match its hair color. Frost giants dress in skins and pelts, along with any jewelry they own. Frost giant warriors add chain shirts and metal helmets decorated with horns or feathers.

An adult male is about 15 feet tall and weighs about 2,800 pounds. Females are slightly shorter and lighter, but otherwise identical with males. Frost giants can live to be 250 years old.

Frost giants are, first and foremost, cunning. They dislike the smaller races as much as any giant, but rather than attacking outright they will try to use their advantages to convince those weaker than them to submit. If faced with a stronger force, frost giants will parley or withdraw if possible, attacking only if victory seems assured.

A frost giant can throw large stones up to 200' for 3d6 damage. Frost giants are immune to all ice or cold-based attacks.

Giant, Hill
Armor Class: 15 (13)
Hit Dice: 8
No. of Attacks: 1 giant weapon (club)
Damage: 2d8
Movement: 30' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 2d4, Lair 2d4
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: E plus 1d8x1000 gp
XP: 875

The smallest of giants, adult hill giants stand between ten and twelve feet in height and weigh about 1,100 pounds. Hill giants can live to be 200 years old. Skin color among hill giants ranges from light tan to deep ruddy brown. They have brown or black hair and eyes the same color. They wear layers of crudely prepared hides, which they seldom wash or repair, preferring to simply add more hides as the old ones wear out.

Whether attacking with a weapon or st, hill giants deal 2d8 damage. Hill giants are brutish and aggressive. They are sometimes found leading groups of ogres or bugbears. Hill giants often keep dire wolves as pets.

Giant, Stone
Armor Class: 17 (15)
Hit Dice: 9 (+8)
No. of Attacks: 1 stone club or 1 thrown rock
Damage: 3d6 or 3d6
Movement: 30' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 9
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: E plus 1d8x1000 gp
XP: 1,075

Stone giants prefer thick leather garments, dyed in shades of brown and gray to match the stone around them. Adults are about 12 feet tall and weigh about 1,500 pounds. Stone giants can live to be 800 years old.

A stone giant can throw large stones up to 300' for 3d6 damage.

Stone giants are reclusive, but they will defend their territory (typically in rocky mountainous terrain) against any who trespass therein.

Giant, Storm
Armor Class: 19 (13)
Hit Dice: 15** (+11)
No. of Attacks: 1 giant weapon or 1 lightning bolt
Damage: 8d6 or 15d6
Movement: 30' Unarmored 50' (10')
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 15
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: E plus 1d20x1000 gp
XP: 3,100

Adult storm giants are about 21 feet tall and weigh about 12,000 pounds. They can live to be 600 years old. Most storm giants have pale skin and dark hair. Very rarely, storm giants have violet skin. Violet-skinned storm giants have deep violet or blue-black hair with silvery gray or purple eyes.

Storm giants generally dress in short, loose tunic belted at the waist, sandals or bare feet, and a headband. They wear a few pieces of simple but finely crafted jewelry, anklets (favored by barefoot giants), rings, or circlets being most common. They live quiet, reflective lives and spend their time musing about the world, composing and playing music, and tilling their land or gathering food.

Storm giants prefer to attack first with their lightning bolts (which work just as the spell does, and can be used once per five rounds; a save vs. Spells reduces damage to half). Also, 10% of storm giants have the abilities of a Magic-User of level 2 to 12 (2d6). In battle, they wear well-crafted and well-cared-for plate mail.

Unlike most other giants, storm giants have been known to befriend humans, elves, or dwarves.

Gnoll
Armor Class: 15 (13)
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 2d4 or by weapon +1
Movement: 30' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 3d6, Lair 3d6
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: Q, S each; D, K in lair
XP: 75

Gnolls are hyena-headed, evil humanoids that wander in loose tribes. Most gnolls have dirty yellow or reddish-brown fur. An adult male gnoll is about 7½ feet tall and weighs 300 pounds.

Gnolls are nocturnal, and have Darkvision with a 30' range. They are cruel carnivores, preferring intelligent creatures for food because they scream more. They show little discipline when fighting unless they have a strong leader.

One out of every six gnolls will be a hardened warrior of 4 Hit Dice (240 XP) having a +1 bonus to damage due to strength. Gnolls gain a +1 bonus to their morale if they are led by such a warrior. In lairs of 12 or greater, there will be a pack leader of 6 Hit Dice (500 XP) having a +2 bonus to damage. In the lair, gnolls never fail a morale check as long as the pack leader is alive. In addition, a lair has a chance equal to 1-2 on 1d6 of a shaman being present, and 1 on 1d6 of a witch or warlock. A shaman is equivalent to a hardened warrior statistically, and in addition has Clerical abilities at level 1d4+1. A witch or warlock is equivalent to a regular gnoll, and has Magic-User abilities of level 1d4.

Gnome
Armor Class: 15 (11)
Hit Dice: 1
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d6 or by weapon
Movement: 20' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: 1d8, Wild 5d8, Lair 5d8
Save As: Fighter: 1 (with Dwarf bonuses)
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: D
XP: 25

Gnomes stand 3 to 3½ feet tall and weigh 40 to 45 pounds. Their skin color ranges from dark tan to woody brown, their hair is fair, and their eyes can be any shade of blue. Males usually wear short, carefully trimmed beards.

Gnomes generally wear leather or earth tones, though they decorate their clothes with intricate stitching or fine jewelry. Gnomes reach adulthood at about age 40, and they live about 350 years. They have Darkvision with a 30' range. When attacked in melee by creatures larger than man-sized, gnomes gain a +1 bonus to their Armor Class. Outdoors in their preferred forest terrain, they are able to hide very effectively; so long as they remain still there is only a 20% chance they will be detected. If one or more gnomes who are successfully hiding attack from ambush, they surprise their foes on 1-4 on 1d6.

Gnomes speak their own language, Gnomish, and many know the language of the dwarves. Most gnomes who travel outside gnome lands (as traders or tinkers) know Common, while warriors in gnome settlements usually learn Goblin. Gnomes encountered in the wilderness are likely to be unfriendly, but not hostile. They tolerate dwarves but dislike most other humanoid races. When forced to interact with other races, a gnome will generally be recalcitrant, unless offered a significant amount of treasure.

Most gnomes encountered outside their home are warriors; the statistics above are for such. In the lair, for every warrior there will be an average of three civilians having 1-1 Hit Dice and Armor Class 11; such gnomes have Morale of 7. One out of every eight gnome warriors will be a sergeant having 3 Hit Dice (145 XP). Gnomes gain a +1 bonus to their morale if they are led by a sergeant. Both warriors and sergeants commonly wear chainmail. In gnomish communities, one out of every sixteen warriors will be a captain of 5 Hit Dice (360 XP) with an Armor Class of 16 (11), adding a shield. In addition, in communities of 35 or greater, there will be a king of 7 Hit Dice (670 XP), with an Armor Class of 18 (11), in plate mail and carrying a shield, having a +1 bonus damage due to strength. In their community, gnomes never fail a morale check as long as the king is alive. There is a chance equal to 1-4 on 1d6 that a community will have a Cleric of level 1d6+1, and 1-2 on 1d6 of a Magic-User of level 1d6. Gnomish Clerics and Magic-Users are equivalent to regular gnomish warriors statistically.

Goblin
Armor Class: 14 (11)
Hit Dice: 1-1
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d6 or by weapon
Movement: 20' Unarmored 30'
No. Appearing: 2d4 ,Wild 6d10, Lair 6d10
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 7 or see below
Treasure Type: R each; C in lair
XP: 10

Goblins are small, wicked humanoids that favor ambushes, overwhelming odds, dirty tricks, and any other edge they can devise. An adult goblin stands 3 to 3½ feet tall and weigh 40 to 45 pounds. Its eyes are usually bright and crafty-looking, varying in color from red to yellow. A goblin’s skin color ranges from yellow through any shade of orange to a deep red; usually all members of a single tribe are about the same color. Goblins wear clothing of dark leather, tending toward drab, soiled-looking colors. They have Darkvision with a 30' range.

The statistics given above are for a standard Goblin in leather armor with a shield; they have a natural Movement rate of 30' and a natural Armor Class of 11.

Some goblins ride dire wolves into combat, and large groups of goblins will often employ them to track and attack their foes.

One out of every eight goblins will be a warrior of 3-3 Hit Dice (145 XP). Goblins gain a +1 bonus to their morale if they are led by a warrior. In a lair or other settlement, one out of every fifteen will be a chieftain of 5-5 Hit Dice (360 XP) in chainmail with an Armor Class of 15 (11) and movement of 10' that gains a +1 bonus to damage due to strength. In lairs or settlements of 30 or more goblins, there will be a goblin king of 7-7 Hit Dice (670 XP), with an Armor Class of 16 (11), wearing chainmail and carrying a shield, with a movement of 10', and having a +1 bonus to damage. Goblins have a +2 bonus to morale while their king is present (this is not cumulative with the bonus given by a warrior leader). In addition, a lair has a chance equal to 1 on 1d6 of a shaman being present (or 1-2 on 1d6 if a goblin king is present). A shaman is equivalent to a regular goblin statistically, but has Clerical abilities at level 1d4+1.

Golem*

Golems are magically created automatons of great power. Constructing one involves the employment of mighty magic and elemental forces. The animating force for a golem is an elemental spirit. The process of creating the golem binds the spirit to the artificial body and subjects it to the will of the golem’s creator.

Being mindless, golems generally do nothing without orders from their creators. They follow instructions explicitly and are incapable of any strategy or tactics. A golem’s creator can command it if the golem is within 60 feet and can see and hear its creator. If not actively commanded, a golem usually follows its last instruction to the best of its ability, though if attacked it returns the attack. The creator can give the golem a simple command to govern its actions in his or her absence. The golem’s creator can order the golem to obey the commands of another person (who might in turn place the golem under someone else’s control, and so on), but the golem’s creator can always resume control over his creation by commanding the golem to obey him alone.

Golems have immunity to most magical and supernatural effects, except when otherwise noted. They can only be hit by magical weapons.

Golem, Amber*
Armor Class: 21 ‡
Hit Dice: 10* (+9)
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 2d6/2d6/2d10
Movement: 60'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,390

Amber golems are generally built to resemble lions or other great cats. They are able to detect invisible creatures or objects within 60', and can track with 95% accuracy through any terrain type.

style="position: absolute; top: 0.2in; left: 0in" A magical attack that deals electricity damage heals 1 point of damage for every 3 full points of damage the attack would otherwise deal. For example, an amber golem hit by a lightning bolt for 20 points of damage is instead healed up to 6 points. If the amount of healing would cause the golem to exceed its full normal hit points, the excess is ignored.

Golem, Bone*
Armor Class: 19 ‡
Hit Dice: 8*
No. of Attacks: 4 weapons
Damage: 1d6/1d6/1d6/1d6 or by weapon
Movement: 40' (10')
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 945

Bone golems are huge four-armed monsters created from the skeletons of at least two dead humanoids. Though made of bone, they are not undead and cannot be turned.

Instead of four one-handed weapons, a bone golem can be armed with two two-handed weapons, giving 2 attacks per round and a damage figure of 1d10/1d10 or by weapon.

When a bone golem enters combat, there is a cumulative 1% chance each round that its elemental spirit breaks free and the golem goes berserk. The uncontrolled golem goes on a rampage, attacking the nearest living creature or smashing some object smaller than itself if no creature is within reach, then moving on to spread more destruction. The golem’s creator, if within 60 feet, can try to regain control by speaking firmly and persuasively to the golem; he or she must make a save vs. Spells to succeed at this, and at least 1 round of time is required for each check. It takes 1 round of inactivity by the golem to reset the golem’s berserk chance to 0%.

Golem, Bronze*
Armor Class: 20 ‡
Hit Dice: 20** (+13)
No. of Attacks: 1 fist + special
Damage: 3d10 + special
Movement: 80' (10')
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter:10
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 5,650

These golems resemble statues made of bronze; unlike natural bronze statues, they never turn green from verdigris. A bronze golem is 10 feet tall and weighs about 4,500 pounds. A bronze golem cannot speak or make any vocal noise, nor does it have any distinguishable odor. It moves with a ponderous but smooth gait. Each step causes the floor to tremble unless it is on a thick, solid foundation.

The interior of a bronze golem is molten metal. Creatures hit by one in combat suffer an additional 1d10 damage from the heat (unless resistant to heat or fire). If one is hit in combat, molten metal spurts out, spraying the attacker for 2d6 damage. A save vs. Death Ray is allowed to avoid the metal spray.

When a bronze golem enters combat, there is a cumulative 1% chance each round that its elemental spirit will break free. Such a golem will go on a rampage, attacking the nearest living creature or smashing some object smaller than itself if no creature is within reach, then moving on to cause more destruction. The golem’s creator, if within 60 feet, can try to regain control by speaking firmly and persuasively to the golem; he or she must make a save vs. Spells to succeed at this, and at least 1 round of time is required for each check. It takes 1 round of inactivity by the golem to reset the chance it will go berserk to 0%.

Golem, Clay*
Armor Class: 22 ‡
Hit Dice: 11** (+9)
No. of Attacks: 1 fist
Damage: 3d10
Movement: 20'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,765

This golem has a humanoid body made from clay. A clay golem wears no clothing except for a metal or stiff leather garment around its hips. A clay golem cannot speak or make any vocal noise. It walks and moves with a slow, clumsy gait. It weighs around 600 pounds.

When a clay golem enters combat, there is a cumulative 1% chance each round that its elemental spirit will break free. Such a golem will go on a rampage, attacking the nearest living creature or smashing some object smaller than itself if no creature is within reach, then moving on to cause more destruction. Once a clay golem goes berserk, no known method can reestablish control.

The damage a clay golem deals doesn’t heal naturally, and magical healing cures only 1 point per die rolled (but add all bonuses normally).

Golem, Flesh*
Armor Class: 20 ‡
Hit Dice: 9** (+8)
No. of Attacks: 2 fists
Damage: 2d8/2d8
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,225

A flesh golem is a ghoulish collection of stolen humanoid body parts, stitched together into a single composite form. No natural animal willingly tracks a flesh golem. The golem wears whatever clothing its creator desires, usually just a ragged pair of trousers. It has no possessions and no weapons. It stands 8 feet tall and weighs almost 500 pounds. A flesh golem cannot speak, although it can emit a hoarse roar of sorts. It walks and moves with a stiff-jointed gait, as if not in complete control of its body.

When a flesh golem enters combat, there is a cumulative 1% chance each round that its elemental spirit will break free. Such a golem will go on a rampage, attacking the nearest living creature or smashing some object smaller than itself if no creature is within reach, then moving on to cause more destruction. The golem’s creator, if within 60 feet, can try to regain control by speaking firmly and persuasively to the golem; he or she must make a save vs. Spells to succeed at this, and at least 1 round of time is required for each check. It takes 1 round of inactivity by the golem to reset the golem’s berserk chance to 0%.

A magical attack that deals cold or fire damage slows a flesh golem (as the slow spell) for 2d6 rounds, with no saving throw. A magical attack that deals electricity damage breaks any slow effect on the golem and heals 1 point of damage for every 3 full points of damage the attack would otherwise deal. If the amount of healing would cause the golem to exceed its full normal hit points, the excess is ignored. For example, a flesh golem hit by a lightning bolt heals 3 points of damage if the attack would have dealt 11 points of damage.

Golem, Iron*
Armor Class: 25 ‡
Hit Dice: 17** (+12)
No. of Attacks: 1 + special
Damage: 4d10 + special
Movement: 20' (10')
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 9
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 3,890

This golem has a humanoid body made from iron. An iron golem can be fashioned in any manner, just like a stone golem (see below), although it almost always displays armor of some sort. Its features are much smoother than those of a stone golem. Iron golems sometimes carry a short sword in one hand. An iron golem is 12 feet tall and weighs about 5,000 pounds. An iron golem cannot speak or make any vocal noise, nor does it have any distinguishable odor. It moves with a ponderous but smooth gait. Each step causes the floor to tremble unless it is on a thick, solid foundation.

Iron golems can exhale a cloud of poisonous gas which fills a 10-foot cube and persists for 1 round. Those within the area of effect must save vs. Dragon Breath or die. This ability can be used up to 3 times per day.

A magical attack that deals electricity damage slows an iron golem (as the slow spell) for 3 rounds, with no saving throw. A magical attack that deals fire damage breaks any slow effect on the golem and heals 1 point of damage for each 3 full points of damage the attack would otherwise deal. If the amount of healing would cause the golem to exceed its full normal hit points, the excess is ignored. For example, an iron golem hit by a fireball gains back 6 hit points if the damage total is 19 points. An iron golem is affected normally by rust attacks, such as that of a rust monster, suffering 2d6 points of damage for each hit (with no saving throw normally allowed).

Golem, Stone*
Armor Class: 25 ‡
Hit Dice: 14** (+11)
No. of Attacks: 1 + special
Damage: 3d8 + special
Movement: 20' (10')
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 7
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 2,730

This golem has a humanoid body made from stone. A stone golem is 9 feet tall and weighs around 2,000 pounds. Its body is frequently stylized to suit its creator. For example, it might look like it is wearing armor, with a particular symbol carved on the breastplate, or have designs worked into the stone of its limbs.

Stone golems are formidable opponents, being physically powerful and difficult to harm. A stone golem can use a slow effect, as the spell, once every other round; a save vs. Spells is allowed to resist. The effect has a range of 10 feet and a duration of 2d6 rounds.

A stone to flesh spell may be used to weaken the monster. The spell does not actually change the golem’s structure, but for one full round after being affected, the golem is vulnerable to normal weapons. The stone golem is allowed a save vs. Spells to resist this effect.

Golem, Wood*
Armor Class: 13 ‡
Hit Dice: 2+2*
No. of Attacks: 1 fist
Damage: 1d8
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 100

Wood golems are small constructs, not more than 4' in height, and are crudely made. Being made of wood makes them vulnerable to fire-based attacks; thus, wood golems suffer one extra point of damage per die from fire; any saving throws against such effects are at a penalty of -2. They move stiffly, suffering a -1 penalty to Initiative.

Gorgon
Armor Class: 19
Hit Dice: 8*
No. of Attacks: 1 gore or 1 breath
Damage: 2d6 or petrification
Movement: 40' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 945

Gorgons are magical monsters resembling bulls made of iron. Their breath can turn living creatures to stone; it covers an area 60' long by 10' wide, and can be used as many times per day as the monster has hit dice, but no more often than every other round. A save vs. Petrification is allowed to resist.

A typical gorgon stands over 6 feet tall at the shoulder, measures 8 feet from snout to tail, and weighs about 4,000 pounds. Gorgons are nothing if not aggressive. They attack intruders on sight, attempting to gore or petrify them. There is no way to calm these furious creatures, and they are impossible to domesticate.

Gray Ooze
Armor Class: 12
Hit Dice: 3*
No. of Attacks: 1 pseudopod
Damage: 2d8
Movement: 1'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 175

Gray oozes are amorphous creatures that live only to eat. They inhabit underground areas, scouring caverns, ruins, and dungeons in search of organic matter, living or dead. A gray ooze can grow to a diameter of up to 10 feet and a thickness of about 6 inches. A typical specimen weighs about 700 pounds.

A gray ooze secretes a digestive acid that quickly dissolves organic material and metal, but not stone. After a successful hit, the ooze will stick to the creature attacked, dealing 2d8 damage per round automatically. Normal (non-magical) armor or clothing dissolves and becomes useless immediately. A non-magical metal or wooden weapon that strikes a gray ooze also dissolves immediately. Magical weapons, armor, and clothing are allowed a saving throw (use the wearer's save vs. Death Ray, adding any magical “plus” value to the roll if applicable).

Green Slime*
Armor Class: hit only by fire or cold
Hit Dice: 2**
No. of Attacks: 1 special
Damage: special
Movement: 1'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 125

Green slime devours flesh and organic materials on contact and is even capable of dissolving metal given enough time. Bright green, wet, and sticky, it clings to walls, floors, and ceilings in patches, reproducing as it consumes organic matter. It drops from walls and ceilings when it detects movement (and possible food) below. Green slime cannot grow in sunlight; even the indirect sunlight of a dense forest will stunt it and prevent it from spreading, and direct sunlight will kill green slime outright within a turn.

On the first round of contact, the slime can be scraped off a creature (most likely destroying the scraping device), but after that it must be frozen, burned, or cut away (dealing the same damage to both the victim and the slime). A cure disease spell will destroy a patch of green slime. It does not harm stone or enchanted metal, but can dissolve normal metal or enchanted wood in a turn and normal wood in 2d4 rounds.

If not destroyed or scraped off within 6+1d4 rounds, the victim will be completely transformed into green slime; such a character or creature cannot be retrieved by any magic short of a wish.

Griffon
Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 7
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d4/1d4/2d8
Movement: 40' (10') Fly 120' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 2d8, Lair 2d8
Save As: Fighter: 7
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: E
XP: 670

Griffons are large carnivorous creatures resembling lions with the head, foreclaws and wings of eagles. From nose to tail, an adult griffon can measure as much as 8 feet. Neither males nor females are endowed with a mane. A pair of broad, golden wings emerge from the creature’s back and span 25 feet or more. An adult griffon weighs about 500 pounds.

Griffons nest on high mountaintops, soaring down to feed on horses, the beast’s preferred prey. They hunt and travel in ocks. A Griffon will attack a horse over anything else, diving low to swipe with their claws. They are not above retreating and coming back later, when there may be less of a defense mounted.

Griffons can be trained as mounts if raised in captivity, but even in this case they may try to attack horses if any come within about 120'. Roll a morale check in this case; if the check is failed, the griffon will try to attack immediately. A light load for a griffon is up to 400 pounds; a heavy load, up to 900 pounds.

Hangman Tree
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 5
No. of Attacks: 4 limbs plus strangle
Damage: 1d6 per limb or strangle
Movement: 0
No. Appearing: Wild 1
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 360

Hangman trees are horrible, semi-animate creatures that fertilize themselves with dead bodies. A hangman tree has four animated limbs that can wrap around the necks of living creatures that pass beneath, strangling for 1d6 points of damage per round. These limbs are arranged evenly around the tree in most cases, and generally no more than one limb can attack any single creature at a time.

The roots of this tree are also animated; they do not attack, but they do pull dead bodies below the surface of the ground for “digestion.”

Harpy
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 2*
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 weapon + special
Damage: 1d4/1d4/1d6 or by weapon + special
Movement: 20' Fly 50' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 2d4, Lair 2d4
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: C
XP: 100

A harpy looks like a giant vulture bearing the torso and face of a human female. They are able to attack with their claws as well as with normal weapons, but their most insidious ability is their song. When a harpy sings, all creatures (other than harpies) within a 300' radius must succeed on a save vs. Spells or become charmed. The same harpy’s song cannot affect a creature that successfully saves again for 24 hours. A charmed victim walks toward the harpy, taking the most direct route available. If the path leads into a dangerous area (through ame, off a cliff, or the like), that creature is allowed a second saving throw to resist the charm. Charmed creatures can take no actions other than to defend themselves. A victim within reach of the harpy offers no resistance to the monster’s attacks. The effect continues for as long as the harpy sings, and for one round thereafter.

Hawk
Normal Giant
Armor Class: 12 14
Hit Dice: 1d4 Hit Points 4
No. of Attacks: 1 claw or bite 1 claw or bite
Damage: 1d2 1d6
Movement: Fly 160' Fly 150' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6 Wild 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 1 Fighter: 4
Morale: 7 8
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 10 240

Hawks are similar to eagles but slightly smaller, being 1 to 2 feet long with wingspans of 6 feet or less.

Giant hawks are 4 to 6 feet long, with wingspans of 12 feet or more; they can carry off creatures of Halfling size or smaller.

Hellhound
Armor Class: 14 to 18
Hit Dice: 3** to 7**
No. of Attacks: 1 bite or 1 breath
Damage: 1d6 or 1d6 per Hit Die
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 2d4, Wild 2d4, Lair 2d4
Save As: Fighter: 3 to 7 (same as Hit Dice)
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: C
XP: 205 - 800

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Hellhounds are canine creatures sheathed in hellish flame. A typical hell hound stands 4½ feet high at the shoulder and weighs 120 pounds. They are native to another plane where they hunt in packs; sometimes powerful wizards or evil priests summon them for use as watchdogs. In addition to biting, each hellhound may breathe fire a number of times per day equal to its hit dice. In combat, one-third of the time (1-2 on 1d6) a hellhound will choose to breathe fire; otherwise it will attempt to bite. Roll each round to determine which attack form will be used.

A hellhound's breath weapon is a cone of flame 10' wide at the far end which is 10' long for those with 3 or 4 hit dice, 20' long for those with 5 or 6 hit dice, and 30' long for the largest hellhounds. This breath weapon does 1d6 points of damage per each hit die of the hellhound to all within the area of effect; a successful saving throw vs. Dragon Breath reduces damage to half normal.

Note that hellhounds vary with regard to the number of hit dice each has. If generating a group randomly, roll 1d6+1 for the hit dice of each, reading a total of 2 as 3. A hellhound has an Armor Class equal to 11 plus its hit dice.

Hippogriff
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 3
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d6/1d10
Movement: 60' (10') Fly 120' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 2d8
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 145

Hippogriffs resemble large ying horses with the forefront of a bird of prey. A typical hippogriff is 9 feet long, has a wingspan of 20 feet, and weighs 1,000 pounds.

A hippogriff avoids the territories and civilizations of other creatures, dwelling in extreme altitudes. Griffons sometimes prey upon them, and hippogriffs will generally attack griffons on sight if they have a numerical advantage.

Hippogriffs are omnivorous, entering combat only as defense, save for those times a griffon is met. They are prized as flying mounts since, unlike griffons, they are relatively safe around horses; note that it is still necessary to raise one in captivity in order to use it as a mount. A light load for a hippogriff is up to 400 pounds; a heavy load, up to 900 pounds.

Hobgoblin
Armor Class: 14 (11)
Hit Dice: 1
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d8 or by weapon
Movement: 30' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 2d4, Lair 4d8
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: Q, R each; D, K in lair
XP: 25

Hobgoblins are larger cousins of goblins, being about the same size as humans. Their hair color ranges from dark reddish-brown to dark gray. They have dark orange or red-orange skin. Large males have blue or red noses. Hobgoblins' eyes are yellowish or dark brown, while their teeth are yellow. Their garments tend to be brightly colored, often blood red with black-tinted leather. Their weaponry is kept polished and in good repair. They wear toughened hides and carry wooden shields for armor. As with most goblinoids, they have Darkvision with a 30' range.

Hobgoblins are cruel and calculating warriors, always looking to exploit those weaker than themselves. They have a strong grasp of strategy and tactics and are capable of carrying out sophisticated battle plans. Under the leadership of a skilled strategist or tactician, their discipline can prove a deciding factor. Hobgoblins hate elves and attack them first in preference over other opponents.

One out of every six hobgoblins will be a warrior of 3 Hit Dice (145 XP). Regular hobgoblins gain a +1 bonus to their morale if they are led by a warrior. In hobgoblin lairs, one out of every twelve will be a chieftain of 5 Hit Dice (360 XP) in chainmail with an Armor Class of 15 (11) and a movement of 20', having a +1 bonus to damage due to strength. In lairs of 30 or greater, there will be a hobgoblin king of 7 Hit Dice (670 XP), adding a shield for an Armor Class of 16 (11) (movement is still 20') having a +2 bonus to damage. In the lair, hobgoblins never fail a morale check as long as the king is alive. In addition, a lair has a chance equal to 1-2 on 1d6 of a shaman being present (or 1-3 on 1d6 if a hobgoblin king is present), and 1 on 1d6 of a witch or warlock. A shaman is equivalent to a hobgoblin warrior statistically, but has Clerical abilities at level 1d6+1. A witch or warlock is equivalent to a regular hobgoblin, but has Magic-User abilities of level 1d6.

Hydra
Armor Class: 16 to 23
Hit Dice: 5 to 12 (+10)
No. of Attacks: 5 to 12 bites
Damage: 1d10 per bite
Movement: 40' (10')
No. Appearing: 1, Wild 1, Lair 1
Save As: Fighter: 5 to 12
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: B
XP: 360 - 1,875

Hydras are reptile-like monsters with multiple heads. They are gray-brown to dark brown, with a light yellow or tan underbelly. The eyes are amber and the teeth are yellow-white. Hydras are about 20 feet long and weigh about 4,000 pounds. They are bad-tempered and territorial, but not particularly cunning.

A hydra may be slain by damage in the normal fashion; however, most who fight them choose to strike at their heads. If a character using a melee weapon chooses to strike at a particular head, and succeeds in doing 8 points of damage, that head is disabled (severed or severely damaged) and will not be able to attack anymore. Such damage also applies to the monster's total hit points, of course.

Some hydras live in the ocean; use the given movement as a swimming rate rather than walking in this case. A very few hydras can breathe fire; those that have this ability can emit a flame 10' wide and 20' long one time per head per day. This attack will be used about one time in three (1-2 on 1d6) if it is available; roll for each head which is attacking. Each such attack does 3d6 damage, with a save vs. Dragon Breath reducing the amount by half.

Hyena
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 2+1
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d6
Movement: 60'
No. Appearing: 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 75

Hyenas are doglike carnivores who exhibit some of the behaviors of canines but are not related. They not only hunt but also scavenge and steal meals. A hungry hyena will chew on anything that is even remotely tainted by blood, meat or other food traces. They will mostly be found in the same savanna-like environments where lions and zebras may be found. They can live in clans of up to a hundred individuals, though smaller groups are more common. They are among the favorite pets of gnolls, who may take them into regions where they are not normally found.

Hyenodon
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 3+1
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d8
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d6, 1d8 Wild Lair 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 145

These ancient four legged predators are named for their tooth shape, and while they are not technically prehistoric hyenas, the statistics work for the giant prehistoric varieties of hyenas as well. Many varieties of hyenodons were smallish, sometimes no bigger than a common hyena, and the statistics for standard hyenas may be used for them. The above statistics are for the larger types of Hyenodons or giant varieties of Hyena. A notable feature is that their massively built skull features a long jaw (similar to that of a crocodile) full of teeth, with four great fangs.

Insect Swarm
Armor Class: Immune to normal weapons, including most magical types
Hit Dice: 2* to 4*
No. of Attacks: 1 swarm
Damage: 1d3 (double against no armor)
Movement: 10' Fly 20'
No. Appearing: 1 swarm, Wild 1d3 swarms
Save As: N/A
Morale: 11
Treasure Type: None
XP: 100 - 280

An insect swarm is not a single creature; rather, it is a large group of ordinary flying or crawling insects moving as a unit. In general, a swarm fills a volume equal to three 10' cubes, though it is possible for a swarm to become more compact in order to move through a small doorway or narrow corridor. If the swarm consists of crawling insects, it covers three 10' squares and the flying movement above is ignored.

Any living creature within the volume or area of the swarm suffers 1d3 points of damage each round. Damage rolls are doubled if the victim is unarmored (for creatures which do not wear armor, any creature having less than Armor Class 15 is considered unarmored).

Damage is reduced to a single point per round for three rounds if the character manages to exit the swarm. It is possible to “ward off” the insects by swinging a weapon, shield, or other similar-sized object around, and in this case also damage is reduced to 1 point per round. If a lit torch is used in this way, the swarm takes 1d4 damage per round. Weapons, even magic weapons, do not harm an insect swarm. An entire swarm can be affected by a sleep spell. Smoke can be used to drive a swarm away (if the swarm moves away from the victim(s) due to smoke, the damage stops immediately). Finally, a victim who dives into water will take damage for only one more round.

Invisible Stalker
Armor Class: 19
Hit Dice: 8*
No. of Attacks: 1
Damage: 4d4
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1 (special)
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 945

Invisible stalkers are creatures native to the Elemental Plane of Air. They sometimes serve wizards and sorcerers, who summon them to perform specific tasks.

A summoned invisible stalker undertakes whatever task the summoner commands, even if the task sends it hundreds or thousands of miles away. The creature follows a command until the task is completed and obeys only the summoner. However, it resents protracted missions or complex tasks and seeks to pervert its instructions accordingly.

Invisible stalkers have an amorphous form. A detect invisible spell shows only a dim outline of a cloud. Don't forget to apply the standard penalty of -4 on the attack die when an invisible stalker is attacked by a creature which is unable to see it.

Jaguar
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d4/1d4/2d4
Movement: 70' Swim 30'
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 240

These great cats are about 8 to 9 feet long (from nose to tail-tip) and weigh about 165 pounds. Unlike other great cats, they enjoy swimming and often hunt near rivers or lakes. Jaguars kill with their powerful bite, preferring to deliver a fatal wound to the skull of their prey.

Kobold
Armor Class: 13 (11)
Hit Dice: 1d4 Hit Points
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d4 or by weapon
Movement: 20' Unarmored 30'
No. Appearing: 4d4, Wild 6d10, Lair 6d10
Save As: Normal Man
Morale: 6
Treasure Type: P, Q each; C in lair
XP: 10

Kobolds are small, dog-faced reptilian humanoids. A kobold is 2 to 2½ feet tall and weighs 35 to 45 pounds. They prefer ranged combat, closing only when they can see that their foes have been weakened. Whenever they can, kobolds set up ambushes near trapped areas. They aim to drive enemies into the traps, where other kobolds wait to pour flaming oil over them, shoot them, or drop poisonous vermin onto them. Kobolds have Darkvision with a range of 60', and suffer a -1 penalty to attack rolls in bright sunlight or within the radius of light spells. Kobolds typically wear leather armor in battle.

One out of every six kobolds will be a warrior of 1 Hit Dice (25 XP). Kobolds gain a +1 bonus to their morale if they are led by a warrior. In kobold lairs, one out of every twelve will be a chieftain of 2 Hit Dice (75 XP) with an Armor Class of 14 (11) and having a +1 bonus to damage due to strength. In lairs of 30 or greater, there will be a kobold king of 3 Hit Dice (145 XP) who wears chain mail with an Armor Class of 15 (11) and a movement of 10', and who has a +1 bonus to damage. In the lair, kobolds never fail a morale check as long as the kobold king is alive. In addition, a lair has a chance equal to 1 on 1d6 of a shaman being present (or 1-2 on 1d6 if a kobold king is present). A shaman is equivalent to a regular kobold statistically, but has Clerical abilities at level 1d4+1.

Kobolds are cunning foes. They see all larger races as enemies, and are thus likely to be hostile when encountered. However, they are naturally cowardly, and prefer to avoid combat, leading enemies into ambushes or traps rather than facing them directly. Sometimes kobold tribes build and inhabit extensive dungeon areas filled with deadly traps which only they know how to avoid.

Leech, Giant
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 6
No. of Attacks: 1 bite + hold
Damage: 1d6 + 1d6/round
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: None
XP: 500

Giant leeches are slimy, segmented wormlike creatures which live in water. Salt or fresh, clean or stagnant, there are giant leech varieties for all wet environments. However, only a true leech expert can tell the various types apart. An average giant leech will be 4 to 6 feet long.

Once a giant leech hits in combat, it attaches to the victim and sucks blood, causing an additional 1d6 damage each round until the victim or the leech is dead. There is no way to remove the leech other than to kill it.

Lion
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 5
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d6/1d10
Movement: 50'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: None
XP: 360

The statistics presented here describe a male African lion, which is 5 to 8 feet long and weighs 330 to 550 pounds. Females are slightly smaller but use the same statistics.

Living Statue

Living statues are magically animated. They are true automatons, unlike golems, which are animated by elemental spirits. While this means that living statues have no chance of going “berserk,” it also means that they may only perform simple programmed activities. They may not be commanded in any meaningful fashion. They make very effective guards for tombs, treasure rooms, and similar places.

Living statues can be crafted to resemble any sort of living creature, but most commonly are made to look like humans or demi-humans.

Living Statue, Crystal
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 3
No. of Attacks: 2 fists
Damage: 1d6/1d6
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 145

Crystal living statues have no particular special powers, unlike those made of iron or stone.

Living Statue, Iron
Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 4*
No. of Attacks: 2 fists
Damage: 1d8/1d8 + special
Movement: 10'
No. Appearing: 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 280

If struck by a non-magical metal (even partially metal) weapon, the weapon may become stuck in the monster. If this happens, it cannot be removed until the statue is “killed.” The wielder is allowed a save vs. Spells to avoid this.

Living Statue, Stone
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 5*
No. of Attacks: 2 lava sprays
Damage: 2d6/2d6
Movement: 20'
No. Appearing: 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 405

A stone living statue attacks by spraying molten rock from its fingertips. The range of the spray is 5'.

Lizard, Giant Draco
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 4+2
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d10
Movement: 40' Fly 70' (20', and see below)
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 240

Giant draco lizards are able to extend their ribs and connected skin to form a sort of wing, allowing them to fly for short distances (no more than three rounds, and ascending is impossible). An average giant draco lizard is 8' long, including its nearly 3' long tail. They are fierce predators.

Lizard, Giant Gecko
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 3+1
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d8
Movement: 40' (special)
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 1d10
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 145

Giant gecko lizards range from 4' to 6' in length, and are generally green in color, though grey or white versions can be found underground. They can climb walls and even walk across ceilings at full movement rate due to their specialized toe pads. They are carnivores, typically attacking weaker prey from above.

Lizard, Giant Horned Chameleon
Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 5
No. of Attacks: 1 tongue or 1 bite
Damage: grab or 2d6
Movement: 40' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d3, Wild 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 360

Giant horned chameleons average 8' to 10' in length. They are typically green, but can change color to blend into their surroundings, allowing them to surprise prey on 1-4 on 1d6. Giant horned chameleon have very long tongues, able to spring out up to 20' forward; the sticky muscular ball on the end grabs on to the chameleon's prey, and the chameleon then drags the prey to its mouth, doing bite damage automatically on the following round (and all subsequent rounds, until the chameleon is killed or fails a morale check, or until the prey is dead).

The horns of the giant horned chameleon are used only in mating rituals, not in combat.

Lizard, Giant Tuatara
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 6
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d4/1d4/2d6
Movement: 40' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 6
Treasure Type: None
XP: 500

Giant tuataras are large, being 10' to 12' long, and heavily built. They are predators with a powerful shearing bite. Giant tuataras are more resistant to cold than most lizards, and are thus sometimes found hunting deep underground. They are also known to hibernate in cold weather.

Lizard Man
Armor Class: 15 (12)
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d6+1 or by weapon +1
Movement: 20' Unarmored 30'

Swim 40' (not in armor)

No. Appearing: 2d4, Wild 2d4, Lair 6d6
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 11
Treasure Type: D
XP: 75

A lizard man is usually 6 to 7 feet tall with green, gray, or brown scales. Its tail is used for balance and is 3 to 4 feet long. Adult males can weigh from 200 to 250 pounds. Due to their great Strength they always receive a +1 to damage done with melee weapons. They wear leather armor and carry shields in battle.

Lizard men are excellent swimmers and can hold their breath for an extended period of time (up to a full turn). They cannot swim while wearing armor; however, they often hide in the water even while armored, standing on the bottom with just nose and eyes exposed (similar to a crocodile). When they are able to employ this maneuver, lizard men surprise on 1-4 on 1d6.

Lizard men are largely indifferent to other races, being primarily interested in their own survival. If aroused, however, they are fearsome warriors, using simple but sound tactics.

Lycanthrope*

Lycanthropes are humans who can transform themselves into animals. In its natural form, a lycanthrope looks like any other human, though those who have been afflicted for a long time tend to acquire features reminiscent of their animal forms. In animal form, a lycanthrope resembles a powerful version of the normal animal, but on close inspection, its eyes (which often glow red in the dark) show a faint spark of unnatural intelligence.

Lycanthropy is spread like a disease. Any human who loses half or more of his or her hit points due to lycanthrope bite and/or claw attacks will subsequently contract the same form of lycanthropy in 3d6 days. For demi-humans and humanoids, contracting the disease is fatal in the same time period. A cure disease cast before the onset is complete will stop the progress of the disease, but once the time has elapsed, the transformation is permanent.

In animal form, lycanthropes may be hit only by silver or magical weapons.

Lycanthrope, Werebear*
Armor Class: 18 †
Hit Dice: 6*
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite + hug
Damage: 2d4/2d4/2d8 + 2d8
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: C
XP: 555

Werebears are humans that can transform into large bears. When in human form, they typically appear as well-muscled, imposing figures, with an abundance of thick hair. Werebears typically dwell in deep forests, far from civilization. They are distrustful of those that they do not know, but will ferociously defend those that they have befriended.

Lycanthrope, Wereboar*
Armor Class: 16 †
Hit Dice: 4*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d6
Movement: 50' Human Form 40'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 2d4, Lair 2d4
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: C
XP: 280

Wereboars in human form tend to be a stocky, muscular individuals of average height. They dress in simple garments that are easy to remove, repair, or replace. In either form, wereboars are as aggressive and ferocious as normal boars.

Lycanthrope, Wererat*
Armor Class: 13 †
Hit Dice: 3*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite or 1 weapon
Damage: 1d4 or 1d6 or by weapon
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d8, Wild 2d8, Lair 2d8
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: C
XP: 175

A wererat in human form tends to be a thin, wiry individual of shorter than average height, with eyes constantly darting around. A wererat's nose and mouth may twitch if he or she is excited. Males often wear thin, ragged mustaches.

In addition to assuming the form of a giant rat, wererats can assume an intermediate form (a “ratman”). The ratman form shares the animal form's immunity to normal weapons, and can deliver an identical bite, but in this form the wererat may use a normal weapon instead of biting. Note that the wererat in ratman form cannot bite and use a weapon in the same round.

Unlike most lycanthropes, wererats prefer to inhabit civilized areas, particularly cities. They frequently lair in sewers or other underground areas, coming out by night to steal from or kill city folk.

Lycanthrope, Weretiger*
Armor Class: 17 †
Hit Dice: 5*
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d6/2d6
Movement: 50' Human Form 40'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: C
XP: 405

Weretigers are humans that can transform into tigers. In human form, they tend to be tall, trim, and very agile. They tend to live and hunt close to human settlements, and are excellent trackers (5 in 6 chance to track prey in either form). Weretigers will typically only attack if provoked.

Lycanthrope, Werewolf*
Armor Class: 15 †
Hit Dice: 4*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d4
Movement: 60' Human Form 40'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 2d6, Lair 2d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: C
XP: 280

Werewolves in human form have no distinguishing traits. They may be found anywhere humans are found. They are ferocious predators, equally willing to eat animal or human flesh.

Manticore
Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 6+1*
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite or 6 spikes (180' range)
Damage: 1d4/1d4/2d4 or 1d6 per spike
Movement: 40' Fly 60' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: D
XP: 555

Manticores look like an overgrown lion with thick leathery wings and an ugly humanoid face, often like that of a human or bearded dwarf. Their tail ends in an assortment of spikes, which the beast may fire as projectiles; a maximum of 24 are available, and the manticore regrows 1d6 per day. A typical manticore is about 10 feet long and weighs about 1,000 pounds.

Manticores are vicious predators, having a preference for human flesh. They will use their ranged attacks to “soften up” potential prey before closing to melee.

Mastodon
Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 15 *(+11)
No. of Attacks: 2 tusks or 1 trample
Damage: 2d6/2d6 or 4d8
Movement: 40' (15')
No. Appearing: Wild 2d8
Save As: Fighter: 15
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: special
XP: 2,975

Mastodons (and mammoths, which can also be represented by the above statistics) are hairy relatives of the elephant found in cold “lost world” areas.

A mastodon has no treasure as such, but the tusks of a mastodon are worth 2d4 x 100 gp.

Medusa
Armor Class: 12
Hit Dice: 4**
No. of Attacks: 1 snakebite + gaze
Damage: 1d6+poison + petrification
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d3, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: F
XP: 320

A medusa appears to be a human female with vipers growing from her head instead of hair. The gaze of a medusa will petrify any creature who meets it unless a save vs. Petrification is made. In general, any creature surprised by the medusa will meet its gaze. Those who attempt to fight the monster while averting their eyes suffer penalties of -4 on attack rolls and -2 to AC. It is safe to view a medusa's reflection in a mirror or other reflective surface; anyone using a mirror to fight a medusa suffers a penalty of -2 to attack and no penalty to AC. If a medusa sees its own reflection, it must save vs. Petrification itself; a petrified medusa is no longer able to petrify others, but the face of a medusa continues to possess the power to petrify even after death otherwise. Medusae instinctively avoid mirrors or other reflective surfaces, even drinking with their eyes closed, but if an attacker can manage to surprise the monster with a mirror she may see her reflection.

Further, the snakes growing from her head are poisonous (save vs. Poison or die in one turn). They attack as a group, not individually, once per round for 1d6 damage (plus the poison).

A medusa often wears garments that enhance its body while hiding its face behind a hood or veil. A typical medusa is 5 to 6 feet tall and about the same weight as a human.

Medusae are shy and reclusive, owing no doubt to the fact that, once the lair of one is found, any humans living nearby will not rest until she is slain. They are hateful creatures, however, and will seek to destroy as many humans as they can without being discovered.

Mermaid
Armor Class: 12
Hit Dice: 1*
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d6 or by weapon
Movement: Swim 40'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d2 or 3d6 (see below)
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: A
XP: 37

Mermaids have the upper bodies of women and the lower bodies of dolphins. Also called “sirens,” mermaids often attempt to lure sailors or other men found near the sea. They accomplish this by means of their enchanting songs.

A mermaid's song will attract any man within 100 yards, but generally has no effect on women. Men within the area of effect must save vs. Spells to resist, or else they will move toward the mermaid with amorous intent as directly as possible. If two mermaids are singing, apply a penalty of -4 to the save; more than two gives no extra benefit. Affected men will submit to anything the mermaid desires. When she tires of him, he might be freed or slain, depending on the mermaid's temperament.

Contrary to popular belief, mermaids are not fish (nor even half fish) and do not breathe water. They can hold their breath for up to an hour of light activity, or two turns (20 minutes) of strenuous action. However, being out of water more than two turns (20 minutes) causes the mermaid 1d4 points of damage per turn.

Mermaids can hear as well as dolphins, and can produce sounds ranging from the lowest frequency a normal human woman can produce up to the highest frequency of a dolphin. This means that mermaids can learn to communicate with dolphins and whales; at least 35% of mermaids will know the language of one or the other, and 10% can communicate with any such creature.

Three-quarters of mermaid births are female. Of the quarter which are male, most have legs rather than tails. Such will either be slain or put ashore to be adopted by humans, depending on the temperament of the mother. Mermen (those born with tails) are raised to be subservient to the females. A small mermaid community (3d6 including the male) will often form around such a merman and his mother, who becomes their leader. Such a group is called a pod.

One-third of female mermaids are infertile. Other mermaids can sense this, but non-mermaids cannot tell. Infertile mermaids usually remain with a fertile sister (or more rarely a close friend) to help her ensnare men. This explains the first number appearing given; in any group of 2, one will be infertile.

A mermaid with a child will not generally be encountered, as they remain in the deeper parts of the ocean and avoid the attention of men. Pods of mermaids do likewise, and in fact any pod includes 2d4-2 children/juveniles (over and above the number rolled for Number Appearing). Men generally meet mermaids only in groups of 1 or 2.

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Mermaids arm themselves with spears or daggers. They hunt fish and harvest kelp for food. Mermaids sometimes possess more than 1 hit die, and about 3% have some Clerical abilities.

Minotaur
Armor Class: 14 (12)
Hit Dice: 6
No. of Attacks: 1 gore/1 bite or 1 weapon
Damage: 1d6/1d6 or by weapon + 2
Movement: 30' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 1d8, Lair 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 11
Treasure Type: C
XP: 500

Minotaurs are huge bull-headed humanoid monsters. A minotaur stands more than 7 feet tall and weighs about 700 pounds. Most minotaurs are very aggressive, and fly into a murderous rage if provoked or hungry. Although minotaurs are not especially intelligent, they possess innate cunning and logical ability. They never become lost, and can track enemies with 85% accuracy. They gain +2 to damage when using melee weapons due to their great Strength. Minotaurs often wear toughened hides for armor.

Mountain Lion
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 3+2
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d4/1d4/1d6
Movement: 50'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 145

These great cats are about 7 feet long (from nose to tail-tip) and weigh about 140 pounds. They see well in darkness and may be found hunting day or night.

Mummy*
Armor Class: 17 ‡ (see below)
Hit Dice: 5**
No. of Attacks: 1 touch + disease
Damage: 1d12 + disease
Movement: 20'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Lair 1d12
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: D
XP: 450

Mummies are undead monsters, linen-wrapped preserved corpses animated through the auspices of dark desert gods best forgotten. Most mummies are 5 to 6 feet tall and weigh about 120 pounds.

As they are undead, mummies are immune to sleep, charm and hold magic. They can only be injured by spells, fire, or magical weapons; furthermore, magic weapons do only half damage, while any sort of fire-based attack does double damage. Those injured by mummy attacks will contract mummy rot, a disease that prevents normal or magical healing; a cure disease spell must be applied to the victim before he or she may again regain hit points.

Nixie
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 1*
No. of Attacks: 1 dagger
Damage: 1d4
Movement: 40' Swim 40'
No. Appearing: Wild 2d20, Lair 2d20
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 6
Treasure Type: B
XP: 37

Nixies are small water fairies. As far as anyone knows, all nixies are female. Most nixies are slim and comely, with lightly scaled, pale green skin and dark green hair. They often twine shells and pearl strings in their hair and dress in wraps woven from colorful seaweed. Nixies prefer not to leave their lakes. A nixie stands about 4 feet tall and weighs about 45 pounds.

Ten or more nixies can work together to cast a powerful charm (similar to charm person). The charm lasts one year (unless dispelled). A save vs. Spells is allowed to resist. Each nixie can cast water breathingonce per day, with a duration of one day. Finally, a group of nixies will often have a school of giant bass living nearby who can be called to their aid (see Fish, Giant Bass for details).

Nixies are fey creatures, and thus unpredictable. However, they are rarely malicious, attacking only when they feel threatened.

Ochre Jelly*
Armor Class: 12 (only hit by fire or cold)
Hit Dice: 5*
No. of Attacks: 1 pseudopod
Damage: 2d6
Movement: 10'
No. Appearing: 1
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 405

Ochre jellies are ochre-colored amorphous monsters, similar to the gray ooze in appearance. An ochre jelly can grow to a diameter of up to 10 feet and a thickness of about 6 inches. A typical specimen weighs about 700 pounds.

Ochre jellies can only be hit (damaged) by fire or cold. Attacks with weapons or electricity/lightning cause the creature to divide into 1d4+1 smaller jellies of 2 hit dice apiece. If divided, the resulting smaller jellies do 1d6 damage with each hit.

Octopus, Giant
Armor Class: 19
Hit Dice: 8
No. of Attacks: 8 tentacles/1 bite
Damage: 1d4 per tentacle/1d6
Movement: Swim 30'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d2
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 875

These creatures are aggressive and territorial hunters, with arms reaching 10 feet or more in length. Their tentacles are studded with barbs and sharp-edged suckers. In order to bite a creature, the giant octopus must hit with at least two tentacles first.

If a giant octopus fails a morale check, it will squirt out a cloud of black “ink” 40' in diameter and then jet away at twice normal speed for 2d6 rounds.

Ogre
Armor Class: 15 (12)
Hit Dice: 4+1
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 2d6
Movement: 30' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 2d6, Lair 2d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: C + 1d20x100 gp
XP: 240

Ogres appear as large, very ugly humans. Adult ogres stand 9 to 10 feet tall and weigh 600 to 650 pounds. Their skin color ranges from dull yellow to dull brown. Their clothing consists of poorly cured furs and hides, which add to their naturally repellent odor. Ogres are brutish and aggressive, but inherently lazy. They employ direct attacks in combat, typically using large clubs, axes, or pole arms, generally causing 2d6 damage. If normal weapons are employed, an ogre has a +3 bonus to damage due to strength. If an ogre fights bare-handed, it does 1d8 subduing damage per hit.

One out of every six ogres will be a pack leader of 6+1 Hit Dice (500 XP). Ogres gain a +1 bonus to their morale if they are led by a pack leader. In ogre lairs of 10 or greater, there will also be an ogre bully of 8+2 Hit Dice (875 XP), with an Armor Class of 17 (13) (movement 20') and having a +4 bonus to damage due to strength. Ogre bullies generally wire together pieces of chainmail to wear over their hides. Ogres gain +2 to morale so long as the ogre bully is present (and alive).

Orc
Armor Class: 14 (11)
Hit Dice: 1
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d8 or by weapon
Movement: 30' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: 2d4, Wild 3d6, Lair 10d6
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: Q, R each; D in lair
XP: 25

Orcs are grotesque humanoids bent on war and domination. They have lupine ears, reddish eyes, truncated, upturned noses, and black hair (but very little body hair). An adult male orc is a little over 6 feet tall and weighs about 210 pounds; females are slightly smaller. Orcs prefer wearing vivid colors that many humans would consider unpleasant, such as blood red, mustard yellow, yellow-green, and deep purple. They utilize all manner of weapons and armor scavenged from battlefields.

Orcs have Darkvision to a range of 60'. They suffer a -1 attack penalty in bright sunlight or within the radius of a spell causing magical light. They speak their own rough and simple language, but many also speak some common or goblin.

One out of every eight orcs will be a warrior of 2 Hit Dice (75 XP). Orcs gain a +1 bonus to their morale if they are led by a warrior. In orc lairs, one out of every twelve will be a chieftain of 4 Hit Dice (240 XP) in chainmail with an Armor Class of 15 (11), a movement 20', and having a +1 bonus to damage due to strength. In lairs of 30 or more, there will be an orc king of 6 Hit Dice (500 XP), with an Armor Class of 16 (11), in chainmail with a shield, movement 20', and having a +2 bonus to damage. In the lair, orcs never fail a morale check as long as the orc king is alive. In addition, a lair has a chance equal to 1-2 on 1d6 of a shaman being present. A shaman is equivalent to a warrior orc statistically, but has Clerical abilities at level 1d4+1.

Owlbear
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 5
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite + 1 hug
Damage: 1d8/1d8/1d8 + 2d8
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: C
XP: 360

Owlbears appear to be bears with owlish faces, including a large, sharp beak. An owlbear’s coat ranges in color from brown-black to yellowish brown; its beak is a dull ivory color. A full-grown male can stand as tall as 8 feet and weigh up to 1,500 pounds. Adventurers who have survived encounters with the creature often speak of the bestial madness in its red-rimmed eyes.

Owlbears fight much as do bears, but are more aggressive (as noted above). As with normal bears, an owlbear must hit with both claws in order to do the listed “hug” damage.

Pegasus
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 2 hooves
Damage: 1d6/1d6
Movement: 80' (10') Fly 160' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d12
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 240

The pegasus is a magnificent winged horse. Though highly prized as aerial steeds, pegasi are wild and shy creatures not easily tamed. A typical pegasus stands 6 feet high at the shoulder, weighs 1,500 pounds, and has a wingspan of 20 feet. A light load for a pegasus is up to 400 pounds; a heavy load, up to 900 pounds.

Pixie
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 1*
No. of Attacks: 1 dagger
Damage: 1d4
Movement: 30' Fly 60'
No. Appearing: 2d4, Wild 10d4, Lair 10d4
Save As: Fighter: 1 (with Elf bonuses)
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: R, S
XP: 37

Pixies are winged fairies often found in forested areas. They wear bright clothing, often including a cap and shoes with curled and pointed toes. A pixie stands about 2-1/2 feet tall and weighs about 30 pounds.

A pixie can become invisible at will, as many times per day as it wishes, and can attack while remaining invisible. Anyone attacking an invisible pixie does so with an attack penalty of -4 unless the attacker can somehow detect invisible creatures. Pixies may ambush their foes while invisible; if they do so, they surprise on 1-5 on 1d6.

Pixies are whimsical, enjoying nothing so much as a good joke or prank, especially at the expense of a “big person” like a human or demi-human.

Pixies can only fly for 3 turns maximum before requiring rest of at least one turn, during which time the pixie may walk at normal speed but may not fly.

Purple Worm
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 11* (+9) to 20* (+13)
No. of Attacks: 1 bite/1 sting
Damage: 2d8/1d8+poison
Movement: 20' (15')
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 6 to 10 (½ of Hit Dice)
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,670 – 5,450

Purple worms are gigantic subterranean monsters; they are rarely found above ground. The body of a mature purple worm is 5-8 feet in diameter and 60-100 feet long, weighing about 40,000 pounds.

The creature has a poisonous stinger in its tail; those injured by it must save vs. Poison or die. Note that the purple worm's movement is less than the monster's length, so that, if attacking from out of a tunnel, it might not be able to use the stinger for several rounds.

Any time a purple worm successfully bites a man-sized or smaller opponent with a natural roll of 19 or 20, the opponent has been swallowed, and will suffer 3d6 damage per round afterward due to being digested. A character who has been swallowed can only effectively attack with small cutting or stabbing weapons such as dagger or shortsword.

Rat
Normal Giant
Armor Class: 11 13
Hit Dice: 1 Hit Point 1d4 Hit Points
No. of Attacks: 1 bite per pack 1 bite
Damage: 1d6 + disease 1d4 + disease
Movement: 20' Swim 10' 40' Swim 20'
No. Appearing: 5d10,

Wild 5d10,

Lair 5d10

3d6,

Wild 3d10,

Lair 3d10

Save As: Normal Man Fighter: 1
Morale: 5 8
Treasure Type: None C
XP: 360* 10

These omnivorous rodents thrive almost anywhere. Normal rats attack as a swarm; each point of damage done to the swarm reduces their numbers by one animal.

Giant rats are scavengers, but will attack to defend their nests and territories. A giant rat can grow to be up to 4 feet long and weigh over 50 pounds. A single giant rat, or a small group of up to four, will generally be shy, but larger packs attack fearlessly, biting and chewing with their sharp incisors.

Any rat bite has a 5% chance of causing a disease. A character who suffers one or more rat bites where the die roll indicates disease will sicken in 3d6 hours. The infected character will lose one point of Constitution per hour; after losing each point, the character is allowed a save vs. Death Ray (adjusted by the current Constitution bonus or penalty) to break the fever and end the disease. Any character reduced to zero Constitution is dead. See Constitution Point Losses in the Encounter section for details on regaining lost Constitution.

* Note: The XP award for normal rats is for driving away or killing an entire pack of normal size. If the adventurers are forced to flee, the GM should award 3 XP per rat slain.

Rhagodessa, Giant
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 2 legs/1 bite
Damage: grab/grab/2d8
Movement: 50'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: U
XP: 240

The rhagodessa is related to both spiders and scorpions, though it is not properly either. Rhagodessas have “pedipalps,” an elongated extra pair of legs in front that have sticky pads on them for capturing prey.

Giant rhagodessas are the size of a pony. Those found in desert terrain are generally marked in yellow, red, and brown, while those found underground may be black or white in color (those found in the deepest caverns are always white). Like spiders, they can climb walls, but they are unable to cross ceilings or otherwise climb entirely upside down.

A hit by a leg does no damage, but the victim is stuck fast, and will be drawn to the rhagodessa's mouth the next round and automatically hit for 2d8 damage. The rhagodessa will not use its bite attack against a foe it has not captured in this way, and neither will it attack more than one foe with its legs. If threatened, a rhagodessa which has captured a victim will attempt to withdraw to consume its prey in peace.

Rhinoceros
Black Woolly
Armor Class: 17 19
Hit Dice: 8 12 (+10)
No. of Attacks: 1 butt or 1 trample
Damage: 2d6 or 2d8 2d8 or 2d12
Movement: 40' (15') 40' (15')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d12 Wild 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 6 Fighter: 8
Morale: 6 6
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 875 1,875

The rhinoceros is infamous for its bad temper and willingness to charge intruders.

The statistics presented here are based on the African black rhino, which is 6 to 14 feet long, 3 to 6 feet high at the shoulder, and weighs up to 6,000 pounds. These statistics can describe any herbivore of similar size and similar natural weapons (antlers, horns, tusks, or the like).

The woolly rhinoceros is a prehistoric beast with long fur, found in primitive “lost world” areas in colder territories. They behave much as the black rhino does.

Roc
Normal Large Giant
Armor Class: 18 18 18
Hit Dice: 6 12 (+10) 32 (+16)
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d6/

2d6

1d8/1d8/

2d10

3d6/3d6/

6d6

Movement: 20' Fly 160' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d12 Wild 1d8 Wild 1
Save As: Fighter: 6 Fighter: 12 Fighter: 20

at +5

Morale: 8 9 10
Treasure Type: I I I
XP: 500 1,875 14,250

Rocs are birds similar to eagles, but even a “normal” roc is huge, being about 9 feet long and having a wingspan of 24 feet. Large rocs are about 18 feet long and have wingspans of around 48 feet; giant rocs average 30 feet long and have massive wingspans of around 80 feet. A roc’s plumage is either dark brown or golden from head to tail. Like most birds, the males have the brighter plumage, with females being duller in color and thus more easily hidden (if anything so large can even be hidden, that is).

A light load for a normal roc is 150 pounds, while a heavy load is 300 pounds. Obviously only the smallest characters can hope to ride upon a normal roc. For a large roc, a light load is up to 600 pounds and a heavy load up to 1200. Giant rocs can easily lift up to 3000 pounds, and are heavily loaded when carrying up to 6000 pounds. Tales of giant rocs carrying off full-grown elephants are somewhat exaggerated, but note that a young elephant would be reasonable prey for these monstrous birds.

A roc attacks from the air, swooping earthward to snatch prey in its powerful talons and carry it off for itself and its young to devour. Any successful hit with both claw (talon) attacks against a single creature results in that creature being carried off, unless of course the creature is too large for the roc to carry. While being carried, the victim will not be further attacked, so as to be as “fresh” as possible when given to the hatchlings (or consumed by the roc itself if it is solitary). A solitary roc is typically hunting and will attack any man-sized or larger creature that appears edible. A mated pair of rocs attack in concert, fighting to the death to defend their nests or hatchlings.

Rock Baboon
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 1 club/1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d4
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 2d6, Wild 2d6, Lair 5d6
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 75

Rock baboons are a large, particularly intelligent variety of baboon. An adult male rock baboon is 4' to 5' tall and weighs 200 to 250 pounds, with females being a bit smaller and lighter.

Rock baboons are omnivorous, but prefer meat. They are aggressive, naturally cruel creatures. They will prepare ambushes in rocky or forested terrain and attack any party they outnumber.

Rot Grub
Armor Class: 10
Hit Dice: 1 hp
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: special
Movement: 5'
No. Appearing: 5d4
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 10

Rot grubs are 1-inch long vermin found in carrion, dung, and other such garbage and organic material. Their skin color is white or brown. When a living creature contacts an area (dung heap, offal, etc) infested with rot grubs, the grubs will attack if they can come in contact the victim’s skin. A rot grub secretes an anesthetic when it bites and will burrow into the flesh. A burrowing grub can be noticed if the victim succeeds at a Wisdom check. If successful, the victim sees strange rippling beneath his skin. If failed, the creature does not notice the grubs. During the first two rounds, a burrowing rot grub can be killed by applying fire to the infested skin or by cutting open the infested skin with any slashing weapon. Either method deals 2d6 points of damage to the victim, but kills the grubs. After the second round, only a cure disease can kill the grubs as they burrow to the victim’s heart and devour it in 1d3 turns.

Rust Monster*
Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 5*
No. of Attacks: 1 antenna
Damage: special
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 405

The hide of these creatures varies in color from a yellowish tan underside to a rust-red upper back. A rust monster’s prehensile antennae can rust metals on contact. The typical rust monster measures 5 feet long and 3 feet high, weighing 200 pounds.

A rust monster's touch transforms metal objects into rust (or verdigris, or other oxides as appropriate). Non-magical metal attacked by a rust monster, or that touches the monster (such as a sword used to attack it), is instantly ruined. A non-magical metal weapon used to attack the monster does half damage before being destroyed. Magic weapons or armor lose one “plus” each time they make contact with the rust monster; this loss is permanent.

The metal oxides created by this monster are its food; a substantial amount of metal dropped in its path may cause it to cease pursuit of metal-armored characters. Use a morale check to determine this.

Sabre-Tooth Cat
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 8
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d6/2d8
Movement: 50'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: None
XP: 875

The sabre-tooth cat, or smilodon, is a prehistoric great cat with very large canine teeth. They behave much as do mountain lions or jaguars.

Salamander*
Flame Frost
Armor Class: 19 ‡ 21 ‡
Hit Dice: 8* 12* (+10)
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite

+ heat

4 claws/1 bite

+ cold

Damage: 1d4/1d4/1d8

+ 1d8/round

1d6/1d6/1d6/1d6/

2d6 + 1d8/round

Movement: 40' 40'
No. Appearing: 1d4+1,

Wild 2d4,

Lair 2d4

1d3,

Wild 1d3,

Lair 1d3

Save As: Fighter: 8 Fighter: 12
Morale: 8 9
Treasure Type: F E
XP: 945 1,975

Salamanders are large, lizard-like creatures from the elemental planes. They are sometimes found on the material plane; they can arrive through naturally-occurring dimensional rifts, or they may be summoned by high-level Magic-Users. Due to their highly magical nature, they cannot be harmed by non-magical weapons.

Flame salamanders come from the Elemental Plane of Fire. They look like giant snakes, more than 12' long, with dragonlike heads and lizard forelimbs. Their scales are all the colors of flame, red and orange and yellow. A flame salamander is flaming hot, and all non-fire-resistant creatures within 20' of the monster suffer 1d8 points of damage per round from the heat. They are immune to damage from any fire or heat attack. Flame salamanders are intelligent; they speak the language of the Plane of Fire, and many will also know Elvish, Common, and/or Dragon.

Frost salamanders come from the Elemental Plane of Water. They look like giant lizards with six legs. Their scales are the colors of ice, white, pale gray and pale blue. Frost salamanders are very cold, and all non-cold-resistant creatures within 20' suffer 1d8 points of damage per round from the cold. Frost salamanders are completely immune to all types of cold-based attacks. They are quite intelligent; all speak the language of the Plane of Water, and many also speak Common, Elvish, and/or Dragon.

Flame and frost salamanders hate each other, and each type will attack the other on sight, in preference over any other foe. If summoned by a Magic-User, a salamander is often assigned to protect a location, doorway, or treasure hoard; in such a case, the salamander will attack anyone attempting to gain unauthorized access to the protected area. Those which arrive through natural rifts may have any goals or motivations the GM wishes, and thus may choose to parley, fight, or even ignore adventurers.

Scorpion, Giant
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 4*
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 stinger
Damage: 1d10/1d10/1d6 + poison
Movement: 50' (10')
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 11
Treasure Type: None
XP: 280

Giant scorpions are quite large, sometimes as large as a donkey. They are aggressive predators and generally attack on sight. If a claw attack hits, the giant scorpion receives a +2 attack bonus with its stinger (but two claw hits do not give a double bonus). Those hit by the stinger must save vs. Poison or die. Giant scorpions are most commonly found in desert areas or caverns.

Sea Serpent
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 6
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d6
Movement: Swim 50' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 2d6
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 500

Sea serpents are, obviously, serpentine monsters which live in the sea. They range from 20' to 40' long. A sea serpent can choose to wrap around a ship and constrict; in this case, roll 2d10 for damage.

Shadow*
Armor Class: 13 ‡
Hit Dice: 2*
No. of Attacks: 1 touch
Damage: 1d4 + 1 point Strength loss
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d10, Wild 1d10, Lair 1d10
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: F
XP: 100

A shadow can be difficult to see in dark or gloomy areas but stands out starkly in brightly illuminated places. They lurk in dark places, waiting for living prey to happen by. A shadow is 5 to 6 feet tall and is weightless. Shadows cannot speak intelligibly. Despite their strange nature and appearance, shadows are not undeadmonsters, and thus cannot be Turned by a Cleric.

A shadow's attack does 1d4 damage (from cold) and drains 1 point of Strength from the victim. Victims reduced to 2 or fewer points of Strength collapse and become unable to move; those reduced to 0 Strength die and rise as shadows a day later (at nightfall). Otherwise, Strength points lost to shadows are recovered at a rate of 1 point per turn.

Due to their incorporeal nature, shadows cannot be harmed by non-magical weapons.

Shark, Bull
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d4
Movement: Swim 60' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 3d6
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 75

Bull sharks are so named because of their stocky, broad build. Male bull sharks can grow up to 7' long and weigh around 200 pounds, while females have been known to be up to 12' long, weighing up to 500 pounds.

Bull sharks are able to tolerate fresh water, and often travel up rivers in search of prey.

Shark, Great White
Armor Class: 19
Hit Dice: 8
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d10
Movement: Swim 60' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 875

Great white sharks range from 12' to 15' in length on the average, though specimens ranging up to 30' in length have been reported. They are apex predators. Great white sharks have the ability to sense the electromagnetic fields of living creatures, allowing them to find prey even when light or water clarity are poor, and are able to smell blood at great distances.

Shark, Mako
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 4
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d6
Movement: Swim 80'
No. Appearing: Wild 2d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 240

Mako sharks are fast-moving predators found in temperate and tropical seas. They average 9' to 13' in length and weigh up to 1,750 pounds. Mako sharks are known for their ability to leap out of the water; they are able to leap up to 20' in the air.

Shrew, Giant
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 1*
No. of Attacks: 2 bites
Damage: 1d6/1d6
Movement: 60'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d8, Lair 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: None
XP: 37

Giant shrews resemble giant rats, but are larger, being up to 6' long, and darker in color. They have a very fast metabolic rate and must eat almost constantly. Giant shrews are omnivorous, and aggressively defend their nests and the immediate territory around them.

Giant shrews move so swiftly that they are able to bite twice per round, and they may attack two different adjacent opponents in this way.

A few giant shrew species (generally no more than 5% of those encountered) are venomous. The bite of such a giant shrew will kill the victim unless a save vs. Poison is made. A victim bitten twice in a round need only save once for that round, but of course will have to save again in subsequent rounds if bitten again. Venomous giant shrews are considered 1* with respect to hit dice.

Shrieker
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 3
No. of Attacks: Special
Damage: None
Movement: 5'
No. Appearing: 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 145

A shrieker is a large (3' to 5' tall and about the same size across), semi-mobile fungus that emits a loud noise as a defense mechanism when disturbed. Shriekers live in dark, subterranean places. They come in several shades of purple.

A shrieker has no means of attack. Instead, it lures monsters to its vicinity by emitting a loud noise. Movement or a light source within 10 feet of a shrieker causes the fungus to emit a piercing sound that lasts for 1d3 rounds. The sound attracts nearby creatures that are disposed to investigate it. Some creatures that live near shriekers learn that the fungus’ noise means there is food nearby. In game terms, the GM should roll a wandering monster check each round that a shrieker shrieks.

Skeleton
Armor Class: 13 (see below)
Hit Dice: 1
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d6 or by weapon
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 3d6, Wild 3d10
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 25

Skeletons are mindless undead created by an evil Magic-User or Cleric, generally to guard a tomb or treasure hoard, or to act as guards for their creator. They take only ½ damage from edged weapons, and only a single point from arrows, bolts or sling stones (plus any magical bonus). As with all undead, they can be Turned by a Cleric, and are immune to sleep, charm or hold magic. As they are mindless, no form of mind reading is of any use against them. Skeletons never fail morale, and thus always fight until destroyed.

Snake, Giant Rattlesnake
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 2*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d8 + poison
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d2, Wild 1d2, Lair 1d2
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 100

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Giant rattlesnakes are simply much enlarged versions of the normal rattlesnake (see pit vipers, below, for details). They average 14' to 20' in length at adulthood.

Snake, Pit Viper
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 1*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d4 + poison
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 37

Pit vipers are highly venomous snakes. There are many varieties ranging in size from 2' to 12' at adulthood; the statistics above are for an “average” variety which reaches about 9' in length.

Those bitten by a pit viper must save vs. Poison or die.

Pit vipers are named for the thermally sensitive “pits” between their eyes and nostrils. These are used to detect birds, mammals, and lizards, the natural prey of these snakes. Note that, even though lizards are cold-blooded, pit vipers can still sense them because their temperature will often be slightly higher or lower than their surroundings.

Rattlesnakes are a variety of pit viper; in addition to the details given above, a rattlesnake has a rattle (from which it gets its name) at the end of its tail. The rattle is used to warn away larger creatures.

Snake, Python
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 5*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite/1 constrict
Damage: 1d4/2d4
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d3, Wild 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 405

After a successful bite attack, a python will wrap itself around the victim (in the same round), constricting for 2d4 damage plus an additional 2d4 per round thereafter. The hold may be broken on a roll of 1 on 1d6 (add the victim's Strength bonus to the range, so a Strength of 16 would result in a range of 1-3 on 1d6); breaking the hold takes a full round.

Snake, Sea
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 3*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1 + poison
Movement: 10' Swim 30'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 175

Sea snakes are relatively small; the largest varieties rarely exceed 6' in length. They have relatively small heads, and are very stealthy in the water. Their bite does so little damage that the creature bitten has only a 50% chance to notice the attack, but their poison is terribly strong, such that any creature bitten must save vs. Poison at a penalty of -4 or die.

Fortunately, sea snakes rarely attack; only if molested (grabbed, stepped on, etc.) will they do so. They are very clumsy when out of the water.

Snake, Spitting Cobra
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 1*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite or 1 spit
Damage: 1d4 + poison or blindness
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 37

Spitting cobras average about 7' in length at adulthood. They use their spreading hood to warn other creatures not to bother them, and generally refrain from attacking if possible to allow larger creatures time to retreat. Failure to retreat from the spitting cobra will likely result in the cobra spitting venom; the cobra can project its venom up to 5', and any creature hit must roll a save vs. Poison or be blinded permanently (though the cure blindness spell can be used to heal this injury). If the cobra cannot deter a creature by spitting, it will attack using its bite. In this case, those successfully hit must save vs. Poison or die.

Spectre*
Armor Class: 17 ‡
Hit Dice: 6**
No. of Attacks: 1 touch
Damage: Energy drain 2 levels/touch
Movement: Fly 100'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Lair 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 11
Treasure Type: E
XP: 610

A spectre looks much as it did in life and can be easily recognized by those who knew the individual or have seen the individual’s face in a painting or a drawing. In many cases, the evidence of a violent death is visible on its body. A spectre is roughly human-sized and is weightless.

Like all undead, they may be Turned by Clerics and are immune to sleep, charm and hold magics. Due to their incorporeal nature, they cannot be harmed by non-magical weapons.

Spider, Giant Black Widow
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 3*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d6 + poison
Movement: 20' Web 40'
No. Appearing: 1d3, Wild 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 175

The giant black widow spider is a much enlarged version of the ordinary black widow; a full-grown male has a leg-span of 2 feet, while an adult female will be 3' or more across. Despite the size difference, both genders are statistically equal. Both genders are marked with an orange “hourglass” on the abdomen.

The venom of the giant black widow is strong, such that those bitten must save vs. Poison at a penalty of -2 or die. Giant black widow spiders spin strong, sticky, nearly invisible webs, usually across passageways or cave entrances, or sometimes between trees in the wilderness; those who stumble into these webs become stuck, and must roll to escape just as if opening a door. Any character stuck in such a web cannot effectively cast spells or use a weapon.

Spider, Giant Crab
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 2*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d8 + poison
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d4, Lair 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 100

Crab spiders are ambush predators, hiding using various forms of camouflage and leaping out to bite their surprised prey. Giant crab spiders are horribly enlarged, being around 3' in length. They can change color slowly (over the course of a few days), taking on the overall coloration of their preferred lair or ambush location. After this change is complete, the spider is able to surprise potential prey on 1-4 on 1d6 when in that preferred location. Anyone bitten by a giant crab spider must save vs. Poison or die.

Spider, Giant Tarantula
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 4*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d8 + poison
Movement: 50'
No. Appearing: 1d3, Wild 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 280

Giant tarantulas are huge, hairy spiders, about the size of a pony. They run down their prey much as wolves do. The bite of the giant tarantula is poisonous; those bitten must save vs. Poison or be forced to dance wildly. The dance lasts 2d10 rounds, during which time the victim has a -4 penalty on attack and saving throw rolls. If the victim is a Thief, he or she cannot use any Thief abilities while dancing. Onlookers must save vs. Spells or begin dancing themselves; such “secondary” victims suffer the same penalties as above, but they will only dance for 2d4 rounds.

Each round the original victim dances, he or she must save vs. Poison again or take 1d4 points of damage. Secondary victims do not suffer this effect.

Neutralize poison will cure the original victim, and dispel magic will stop the dance for all victims in the area of effect, whether they are original or secondary.

Sprite
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 1d4 Hit Points *
No. of Attacks: 1 dagger or 1 spell
Damage: 1d4 or by spell
Movement: 20' Fly 60'
No. Appearing: 3d6, Wild 3d6, Lair 5d8
Save As: Magic-User: 4 (with Elf bonuses)
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: S
XP: 13

Sprites are reclusive fey creatures, looking like tiny elves just a foot tall with dragonfly-like wings. They go out of their way to fight evil and ugliness and to protect their homelands. Sprites fight their opponents with spell-like abilities and pint-sized weaponry. They prefer ambushes and other trickery over direct confrontation.

Five sprites acting together can cast remove curse, or its reversed form bestow curse, once per day. The latter spell is often used as an attack.

Squid, Giant
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 6
No. of Attacks: 8 tentacles/1 bite
Damage: 1d4 per tentacle/1d10
Movement: Swim 40'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: None
XP: 500

These voracious creatures can have bodies more than 20 feet long and attack almost anything they meet. Their tentacles are studded with barbs and sharp-edged suckers. In order to bite a creature, the giant squid must hit with at least two tentacles first.

If a giant squid fails a morale check, it will squirt out a cloud of black “ink” 30' in diameter and then jet away at twice normal speed for 3d8 rounds.

Stirge
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 1*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 1d4 + 1d4/round blood drain
Movement: 10' Fly 60'
No. Appearing: 1d10, Wild 3d12, Lair 3d12
Save As: Fighter: 1
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: D
XP: 37

A stirge’s coloration ranges from rust-red to reddish-brown, with a dirty yellow underside. The proboscis is pink at the tip, fading to gray at its base. A stirge’s body is about 1 foot long, with a wingspan of about 2 feet. It weighs about 1 pound.

If a stirge hits a creature, it attaches and drains blood equal to 1d4 damage per round (on its Initiative). The creature can only be removed by killing it; any attack on the creature receives an attack bonus of +2, but any attack that misses hits the victim instead.

Tentacle Worm
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 3*
No. of Attacks: 6 tentacles
Damage: paralysis
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: B
XP: 175

Tentacle worms appear to be giant worms of some sort, averaging 6 to 8 feet long. Their heads are pasty white or grey, but their bodies vary from livid pink or purple to deep green in color. Their tentacles splay out from around the creature's “neck.” Some sages believe they are the larval form of some other monster, but this has never been proven.

A tentacle worm can attack as many as three adjacent opponents. Those hit must save vs. Paralysis or be paralyzed 2d4 turns. No matter how many of a tentacle worm's attacks hit an opponent in a given round, only one saving throw is required in each such round.

If all opponents of a tentacle worm are rendered paralyzed, it will begin to feed upon the paralyzed victims, doing 1 point of damage every 1d8 rounds until the victim is dead; if other paralyzed victims are still alive, the worm is 50% likely to move on immediately to another still-living victim. Otherwise, it continues to eat the corpse of the slain victim for 1d4 turns.

Tiger
Armor Class: 14
Hit Dice: 6
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d6/2d6
Movement: 50'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d3, Lair 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: None
XP: 500

These great cats stand more than 3 feet tall at the shoulder and are about 9 feet long. They weigh from 400 to 600 pounds.

Titanothere
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 12 (+10)
No. of Attacks: 1 butt or 1 trample
Damage: 2d6 or 3d8
Movement: 40' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,875

A titanothere is a huge prehistoric animal that resembles the rhinoceros; adults average 10' tall and 13' long. They have large, forked horns rather than the pointed horns of rhinos. Like rhinos, they are herd animals, and males aggressively defend the herd; females only enter combat if the male(s) are defeated or the attackers are very numerous. If a single titanothere is encountered, it will be a rogue male; they are bad tempered and prone to attacking smaller creatures that enter their territory.

Treant
Armor Class: 19
Hit Dice: 8*
No. of Attacks: 2 fists
Damage: 2d6/2d6
Movement: 20'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d8, Lair 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: C
XP: 945

A treant is a large, roughly humanoid tree-man. Treants have leaves of deep green in the spring and summer. In the fall and winter the leaves change to yellow, orange, or red, but they rarely fall out. A treant’s legs fit together when closed to look like the trunk of a tree, and a motionless treant is nearly indistinguishable from a tree. A treant is about 30 feet tall, with a “trunk” about 2 feet in diameter. It weighs about 4,500 pounds.

Treants speak their own language, plus Common and Elvish. Most also can manage a smattering of just about all other humanoid tongues, at least enough to say “Get away from my trees!” Treants prefer to watch potential foes carefully before attacking. They often charge suddenly from cover to trample the despoilers of forests. If sorely pressed, they animate trees as reinforcements.

A treant can animate trees within 180' at will, controlling up to two trees at a time. It takes one round for a normal tree to uproot itself. Thereafter it moves at a speed of 10' and fights as a treant in all respects. Such trees lose their ability to move if the treant that animated them is incapacitated or moves out of range.

Troglodyte
Armor Class: 15
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d4/1d4/1d4
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d8, Lair 5d8
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: A
XP: 75

Troglodytes are very intelligent lizardlike humanoid creatures. They have large red eyes and spiny “combs” on their legs, head, and arms. They normally stand 5 to 6 feet tall. They can change color at will, and 50% of the time a group can blend into the environment well enough to surprise on a roll of 1-5 on 1d6. Furthermore, they gain a +2 attack bonus during any surprise round due to their excellent ambush skills.

Troglodytes secrete a smelly oil that keeps their scaly skin supple. All mammals (including, of course, all the standard character races) find the scent repulsive, and those within 10 feet of the Troglodyte must make a saving throw versus poison. Those failing the save suffer a -2 penalty to attack rolls while they remain within range of the Troglodyte. Getting out of range negates the penalty, but renewed exposure reinstates the penalty. The results of the original save last a full 24 hours, after which a new save must be rolled.

Troglodytes are very hostile, attacking equal or weaker non-troglodyte groups on sight. They prefer to attack with surprise, depending on their color-changing ability for this.

One out of every eight troglodytes will be a warrior of 4 Hit Dice (240 XP) that gains a +1 bonus to damage due to Strength. Troglodytes gain a +1 bonus to their morale if they are led by a warrior. In lairs of 24 or more, there will be a troglodyte leader of 6 Hit Dice (500 XP) with an Armor Class of 17 and having a +2 bonus to damage due to Strength. In the lair, troglodytes never fail a morale check as long as the leader is alive.

Troll
Armor Class: 16
Hit Dice: 6*
No. of Attacks: 2 claws/1 bite
Damage: 1d6/1d6/1d10
Movement: 40'
No. Appearing: 1d8, Wild 1d8, Lair 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 10 (8)
Treasure Type: D
XP: 555

A typical adult troll stands 9 feet tall and weighs 500 pounds. A troll’s rubbery hide is moss green, mottled green and gray, or putrid gray. The hair is usually greenish black or iron gray. They appear sexless if examined, and their method of reproduction is a mystery. Trolls walk upright but hunched forward with sagging shoulders. Their gait is uneven, and when they run, their arms dangle and drag along the ground. For all this seeming awkwardness, trolls are very agile.

Trolls have the power of regeneration; they heal 1 hit point of damage each round after being injured. A troll reduced to 0 hit points is not dead, but only disabled for 2d6 rounds, at which point it will regain 1 hit point. Note that the troll may “play dead” until it has regenerated further. Damage from fire and acid cannot be regenerated, and must heal at the normal rate; a troll can only be killed by this sort of damage. The lower morale rating (in parentheses) is used when the troll faces attackers armed with fire or acid. If a troll loses a limb or body part, the lost portion regrows in one turn; or, the creature can reattach the severed member instantly by holding it to the stump.

Trolls are hateful creatures, reveling in combat and bloodshed. Though trolls could easily use a variety of weapons, they much prefer the sensation of flesh being rent by their teeth and claws.

Unicorn (and Alicorn)
Unicorn Alicorn
Armor Class: 19 19
Hit Dice: 4* 4*
No. of Attacks: 2 hooves/1 horn (+3 attack bonus) 2 hooves/1 horn
Damage: 1d8/1d8/1d6+3 2d4/2d4/2d6
Movement: 80' 70'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d6 Wild 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 8 Fighter: 6
Morale: 7 9
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 280 280

Unicorns are horselike creatures having a single spirally-twisted horn in the middle of the forehead. A typical adult unicorn grows to 8 feet in length, stands 5 feet high at the shoulder, and weighs 1,200 pounds. Females are slightly smaller and slimmer than males. A unicorn has deep sea-blue, violet, brown, or fiery gold eyes. Males sport a white beard.

Unicorns normally attack only when defending themselves or their forests. They either charge, impaling foes with their horns like lances, or strike with their hooves. The horn is a +3 magic weapon, though its power fades if removed from the unicorn.

Three times per day a unicorn can cast cure light wounds by a touch of its horn. Once per day a unicorn can transport itself 360' (as the spell dimension door), and can carry a full load (possibly including a rider) while doing so. A light load for a unicorn is up to 300 pounds; a heavy load, up to 550 pounds.

An Alicorn resembles a unicorn in all details, save that they always have yellow, orange or red eyes, and (if one gets close enough to see) pronounced, sharp canine teeth. Alicorns are as evil as unicorns are good, using their razor-sharp horns and clawlike hooves as weapons. They attack any weaker creatures for the sheer pleasure of killing, but will try to avoid stronger parties.

Alicorns cannot heal or transport themselves by magic as unicorns do. However, alicorns may become invisible at will, exactly as if wearing a ring of invisibility.

Urgoblin
Armor Class: 14 (11)
Hit Dice: 2*
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d8 or by weapon
Movement: 30' Unarmored 40'
No. Appearing: Special
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: Q, R, S each; special in lair
XP: 100

These creatures appear to be normal h obgoblins, but urgoblins are actually a mutant subspecies. Urgoblins are able to regenerate much as do t rolls (with the same limitations). All urgoblins are male; if an urgoblin mates with a female hobgoblin, any offspring will also be male, but only one in four such offspring will share their father's gifts. Like hobgoblins, urgoblins wear toughened hides and carry wooden shields into battle, blending in perfectly.

Some hobgoblin tribes consider urgoblins an abomination, and kill them whenever they can be identified. Other hobgoblin tribes employ them as bodyguards for the chieftain, and accord them great honor. There are even rumors of a tribe entirely made up of urgoblins, with kidnapped hobgoblin females as their mates; reportedly they slit the throats of all infants born to their mates, so that only those who have the power of regeneration survive.

Vampire*
Armor Class: 18 to 20 ‡
Hit Dice: 7** to 9** (+8)
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon or special
Damage: 1d8 or by weapon or special
Movement: 40' Fly 60'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 7 to 9 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 11
Treasure Type: F
XP: 800 - 1,225

Vampires appear just as they did in life, although their features are often hardened and feral, with the predatory look of wolves. They often embrace finery and decadence and may assume the guise of nobility. Despite their human appearance, vampires can be easily recognized, for they cast no shadows and throw no reflections in mirrors. They speak any languages they knew in life.

A vampire can charm anyone who meets its gaze; a save vs. Spells is allowed to resist, but at a penalty of -2 due to the power of the charm. This charm is so powerful that the victim will not resist being bitten by the vampire.

The bite inflicts 1d3 damage, then each round thereafter one energy level is drained from the victim. The vampire regenerates a 1d6 hit points (if needed) for each energy level drained. If the victim dies from the energy drain, he or she will arise as a vampire at the next sunset (but not less than 12 hours later). Vampires spawned in this way are under the permanent control of the vampire who created them.

If using the bite attack, the vampire suffers a penalty of -5 to Armor Class due to the vulnerable position it must assume. For this reason, the bite is rarely used in combat. Vampires have great Strength, gaining a bonus of +3 to damage when using melee weapons, and a vampire will generally choose to use a melee weapon (or even its bare hands) in combat rather than attempting to bite.

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Vampires are unharmed by non-magical weapons, and like all undead are immune to sleep, charm and hold spells. If reduced to 0 hit points in combat, the vampire is not destroyed, though it may appear to be. The vampire will begin to regenerate 1d8 hours later, recovering 1 hit point per turn, and resuming normal activity as soon as the first point is restored.

Vampires command the lesser creatures of the night and once per day can call forth 10d10 rats, 5d4 giant rats, 10d10 bats, 3d6 giant bats, or a pack of 3d6 wolves (assuming any such creatures are nearby). These creatures arrive in 2d6 rounds and serve the vampire for up to 1 hour.

A vampire can assume the form of a giant bator a dire wolf at will, requiring one round to complete the transformation. The flying movement listed is for the giant bat form. In animal form, the vampire can use the normal attacks for that form. It can't use its other powers while in animal form, except that creatures summoned are still controlled, and charms already in effect continue in effect.

For all their power, vampires have a number of weaknesses:

Repelling a Vampire: Vampires cannot tolerate the strong odor of garlic and will not enter an area laced with it. Similarly, they recoil from a mirror or a strongly presented holy symbol. These things don’t harm the vampire – they merely keep it at bay. A recoiling vampire must stay at least 5 feet away from a creature holding the mirror or holy symbol and cannot touch or make melee attacks against the creature holding the item for the rest of the encounter.

Vampires are also unable to cross running water, although they can be carried over it while resting in their coffins or aboard a ship. They are utterly unable to enter a home or other building unless invited in by someone with the authority to do so. They may freely enter public places, since these are by definition open to all.

Slaying a Vampire: Reducing a vampire’s hit points to 0 or lower incapacitates it but doesn’t always destroy it, as described above. However, certain attacks can slay vampires. Exposing any vampire to direct sunlight disorients it: It can act for only one round and is destroyed utterly in the next round if it cannot escape. Similarly, immersing a vampire in running water robs it of one-third of its hit points each round until it is destroyed at the end of the third round of immersion. Driving a wooden stake through a vampire’s heart instantly slays the monster. However, it returns to life if the stake is removed, unless the body is destroyed, by water or sunlight as described above, or by burning it completely in a funeral pyre.

Water Termite, Giant
Armor Class: 13
Hit Dice: 1 to 4
No. of Attacks: 1 spray
Damage: Stun
Movement: Swim 30'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 1 to 4 (as Hit Dice)
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: None
XP: 25 - 240

Giant water termites vary from 1' to 5' in length. They attack using a noxious spray with a range of 5' which stuns the target for a full turn on a hit; a save vs. Poison is allowed to avoid the effect. A stunned character can neither move nor take action for the remainder of the current round and all of the next one.

However, the primary concern regarding these monsters is the damage they can do to boats and ships. Each creature can do 2d4 points of damage to a ship's hull per round (no roll required) for a number of rounds equal to 1d4 plus the creature's hit dice total; after this time, the monster is full. They eat noisily.

These creatures are found in fresh and salt water as well as in swamps. The freshwater variety tend to be smaller, 1-2 hit dice, the saltwater variety 3-4 hit dice, and those found in swamps range from 2-3 hit dice.

Weasel, Giant (or Ferret, Giant)
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 5
No. of Attacks: 1 bite + hold
Damage: 2d4 + 2d4 per round
Movement: 50'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 5
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: V
XP: 360

Giant weasels resemble their more normally sized cousins, having long bodies, short legs, and pointed, toothy snouts. They are predatory animals, hunting those creatures smaller than themselves.

Weasels of all sorts are cunning, crafty hunters, and surprise their prey on 1-3 on 1d6. Once a giant weasel bites a living creature, it hangs on, rending with its teeth each round until the victim or the weasel is dead, or until the weasel fails a morale check (rolled normally) in which case it will let go of its victim and flee.

There are many varieties of normal-sized weasel, including several which are called ferrets; in some territories, the giant weasel is thus called a giant ferret. The only distinction is that those which are tamed are always called ferrets, though not all giant ferrets are tame. Various humanoid races as well as some fairy creatures are known to tame giant ferrets for use as guards or war-animals.

Whale, Killer
Armor Class: 17
Hit Dice: 6
No. of Attacks: 1 bite
Damage: 2d10
Movement: Swim 80' (10')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 10
Treasure Type: None
XP: 500

These ferocious creatures are about 30 feet long. Killer whales, also called “orca” (both singular and plural), are strikingly marked in black and white, with prominent white patches that resemble eyes. Their real eyes are much smaller and located away from the fake eye-spots.

Killer whales eat fish, squid, seals, and other whales, but are not above consuming a meal of human or demi-human fare.

Whale, Narwhal
Armor Class: 19
Hit Dice: 12 (+10)
No. of Attacks: 1 horn
Damage: 2d6
Movement: Swim 60'
No. Appearing: Wild 1d4
Save As: Fighter: 6
Morale: 8
Treasure Type: Special
XP: 1,875

Narwhals are aquatic mammals resembling large dolphins with a single (or rarely, double) tusk protruding straight forward from the mouth. The tusk is helical in shape, and they are sometimes cut short and sold as “unicorn horns.” However, they have no particular magical value. Narwhals are found in cold northern seas. They are not particularly aggressive.

Whale, Sperm
Armor Class: 22
Hit Dice: 36* (+16)
No. of Attacks: 1 bite or special
Damage: 3d20
Movement: Swim 60' (20')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d3
Save As: Fighter: 8
Morale: 7
Treasure Type: None
XP: 17,850

These creatures can be up to 60 feet long. They prey on giant squid. Sperm whales can emit an invisible focused beam of sound 5' wide up to a 50' range underwater. This blast of sound disorients target creatures, leaving them effectively stunned for 1d4 rounds. A stunned character can neither move nor take action for the indicated duration. No attack roll is required, but a save vs. Death Ray is allowed to resist. A sperm whale can emit as many such blasts of sound as it desires, once per round, instead of biting.

Wight*
Armor Class: 15 †
Hit Dice: 3*
No. of Attacks: 1 touch
Damage: Energy drain (1 level)
Movement: 30'
No. Appearing: 1d6, Wild 1d8, Lair 1d8
Save As: Fighter: 3
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: B
XP: 175

A wight’s appearance is a weird and twisted reflection of the form it had in life. A wight is about the height and weight of a human. Wights do not possess any of the abilities they had in life.

If a wight touches (or is touched by) a living creature, that living creature suffers one level of energy drain (as described in the Encounter section). No saving throw is allowed. Striking a wight with a weapon does not count as “touching” it.

Any humanoid slain by a wight becomes a wight by the next sunset (but not less than 12 hours later). Wight spawn are under the command of the wight that created them and remain enslaved until its death.

Like all undead, wights may be Turned by Clerics and are immune to sleep, charm and hold magics. Wights are harmed only by silver or magical weapons, and take only half damage from burning oil.

Wolf
Normal Dire
Armor Class: 13 14
Hit Dice: 2 4
No. of Attacks: 1 bite 1 bite
Damage: 1d6 2d4
Movement: 60' 50'
No. Appearing: 2d6,

Wild 3d6,

Lair 3d6

1d4,

Wild 2d4,

Lair 2d4

Save As: Fighter: 2 Fighter: 4
Morale: 8 9
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 75 240

Wolves are pack hunters known for their persistence and cunning. They prefer to surround and flank a foe when they can.

Dire wolves are efficient pack hunters that will kill anything they can catch. Dire wolves are generally mottled gray or black, about 9 feet long and weighing some 800 pounds.

Wraith*
Armor Class: 15 ‡
Hit Dice: 4**
No. of Attacks: 1 touch
Damage: 1d6 + energy drain (1 level)
Movement: Fly 80'
No. Appearing: 1d4, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 4
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: E
XP: 320

Wraiths are incorporeal creatures born of evil and darkness. In some cases, the grim silhouette of a wraith might appear armored or outfitted with weapons. This appearance does not affect the creature’s AC or combat abilities but only reflects the shape it had in life.

Like all undead, they may be Turned by Clerics and are immune to sleep, charm and hold magics. Due to their incorporeal nature, they cannot be harmed by non-magical weapons.

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" Wyvern

Armor Class: 18
Hit Dice: 7*
No. of Attacks: 1 bite/1 stinger or 2 talons/1 stinger
Damage: 2d8/1d6 + poison

or 1d10/1d10/1d6 + poison

Movement: 30' (10') Fly 80' (15')
No. Appearing: Wild 1d6, Lair 1d6
Save As: Fighter: 7
Morale: 9
Treasure Type: E
XP: 735

A distant cousin to the true dragons, the wyvern is a huge flying lizard with a poisonous stinger in its tail. A wyvern’s body is 15 feet long, and dark brown to gray; half that length is tail. Its wingspan is about 20 feet. A wyvern weighs about one ton. They are built more like bats than lizards, having two legs and two wings; contrast this with true dragons, which have four legs and two wings.

Wyverns are of animal intelligence, but are excellent predators with good hunting abilities. When attacking they will make a loud hiss, or sometimes a deep-throated growl much like that of a bull alligator.

Wyverns attack nearly anything that isn’t obviously more powerful than themselves. A wyvern dives from the air, clawing at its opponent with its talons and stinging it to death. Any living creature hit by the wyvern's stinger must save vs. Poison or die. A wyvern can slash with its talons only when making a flyby attack or when landing.

If a wyvern hits with both its talons, it may attempt to carry off its victim; only victims weighing 300 pounds or less can be carried off, and the wyvern can only carry a victim for at most 6 rounds. While flying with a victim, the wyvern cannot make any further attacks against it, but of course if the victim makes a nuisance of itself (such as by injuring the wyvern), it may be dropped.

Yellow Mold
Armor Class: Can always be hit
Hit Dice: 2*
No. of Attacks: Special
Damage: See below
Movement: 0
No. Appearing: 1d8
Save As: Normal Man
Morale: N/A
Treasure Type: None
XP: 100

If disturbed, a patch of this mold bursts forth with a cloud of poisonous spores. Each patch covers from 10 to 25 square feet; several patches may grow adjacent to each other, and will appear to be a single patch in this case. Each patch can emit a cloud of spores once per day. All within 10 feet of the mold will be affected by the spores and must save vs. Death Ray or take 1d8 points of damage per round for 6 rounds. Sunlight renders yellow mold dormant.

Zombie
Armor Class: 12 (see below)
Hit Dice: 2
No. of Attacks: 1 weapon
Damage: 1d8 or by weapon
Movement: 20'
No. Appearing: 2d4, Wild 4d6
Save As: Fighter: 2
Morale: 12
Treasure Type: None
XP: 75

Zombies are the undead corpses of humanoid creatures. They are deathly slow, but they move silently, are very strong and must be literally hacked to pieces to “kill” them. They take only half damage from blunt weapons, and only a single point from arrows, bolts or sling stones (plus any magical bonus). A zombie never has Initiative and always acts last in any given round. Like all undead, they may be Turned by Clerics and are immune to sleep, charm and hold magics. As they are mindless, no form of mind reading is of any use against them. Zombies never fail morale checks, and thus always fight until destroyed.

PART 7: TREASURE

“Your idea was good, Darion,” said Morningstar after we had turned the sarcophagus lid halfway around. “You just got in a bit of a hurry to try it.”

“Indeed,” I said, feeling foolish. I looked into the sarcophagus; lying atop the mummified remains inside I saw a sword, held in both bony hands with the point toward the corpse's feet. The golden blade was untarnished; the huge ruby set into the crossguard shone in the torchlight.

I didn't reach for it, though I found myself sorely tempted. “Barthal,” I said, “tell me, is it safe to reach within?” The Halfling climbed up onto the edge of the platform and leaned over the sarcophagus, peering around within.

“I don't see a trap,” he remarked after careful study. “Do you think the dead one, there, will rise up if you touch his sword?”

“He might,” answered Apoqulis, “but I doubt it. The skeletons were likely the only guardians in this tomb.”

All eyes seemed to be on me. Reluctantly I reached within, grasping the sword by the blade with my mailed glove so as to avoid touching the corpse. The long-dead chieftain didn't want to part with his weapon, but after a bit of twisting I worked it loose.

Shaking bits of desiccated flesh from the hilt, I grasped the weapon properly and held it aloft. It felt good in my hand… I wondered what magic it might contain?

Barthal's voice shook me out of my contemplation. “Look here!” he said, and I looked down. He had opened a secret panel in the platform… and as I looked on, gold and silver coins began to spill out. Barthal cried out gleefully, “Jackpot!”

Distribution of Treasure

Some adventurers choose to adventure to battle evil, while other seek to attain glory or power… but others go in search of treasure, gold and jewels and magical items. Below is the information the Game Master will need to satisfy the greedy.

Random Treasure Generation

The tables below describe the various treasure types assigned to monsters, as well as unguarded treasures appropriate to various dungeon levels. To generate a random treasure, find the indicated treasure type and read across; where a percentage chance is given, roll percentile dice to see if that sort of treasure is found. If so, roll the indicated dice to determine how much.

Tables for the random generation of gems, jewelry (and bejeweled art pieces), and magic items are provided after the main treasure tables.

Placed Treasures

The Game Master is never required to roll for treasure; rather, treasure may be placed, or random treasures amended, as desired or needed for the purposes of the adventure. Special treasures are always placed; for example, a special magic item needed to complete an adventure.

Adjusting Treasure Awards

There will be many cases where random treasure generation is not the best method to employ. For instance, a larger than average treasure assigned to a smaller than average lair of monsters might need to be reduced. It is up to the Game Master to decide how much treasure he or she wishes to allow into the campaign. Too much gold (or other treasure which can be converted to gold) may make things too easy for the player characters. Similarly, too many magic items may also make things too easy.

If you are a novice Game Master, remember that you can always give more treasure, but it can be difficult to drain treasure from the party without angering the players… particularly if you use heavy-handed methods. Start small, and work up as you gain experience.

Treasure Types

Lair Treasures

Type 100's of

Copper

100's of

Silver

100's of

Electrum

100's of

Gold

100's of

Platinum

Gems and

Jewelry

Magic Items
A 50% 5d6 60% 5d6 40% 5d4 70% 10d6 50% 1d10 50% 6d6

50% 6d6

30%any 3
B 75% 5d10 50% 5d6 50% 5d4 50% 3d6 None 25% 1d6

25% 1d6

10%1 weapon or armor
C 60% 6d6 60% 5d4 30% 2d6 None None 25% 1d4

25% 1d4

15%any 1d2
D 30% 4d6 45% 6d6 None 90% 5d8 None 30% 1d8

30% 1d8

20%any 1d2

+ 1 potion

E 30% 2d8 60% 6d10 50% 3d8 50% 4d10 None 10% 1d10

10% 1d10

30%any 1d4

+ 1 scroll

F None 40% 3d8 50% 4d8 85% 6d10 70% 2d8 20% 2d12

10% 1d12

35%any 1d4 except weapons

+ 1 potion

+ 1 scroll

G None None None 90% 4d6x10 75% 5d8 25% 3d6

25% 1d10

50%any 1d4

+ 1 scroll

H 75% 8d10 75% 6d10x10 75% 3d10x10 75% 5d8x10 75% 9d8 50% 1d100

50% 10d4

20%any 1d4

+ 1 potion

+ 1 scroll

I None None None None 80% 3d10 50% 2d6

50% 2d6

15%any 1
J 45% 3d8 45% 1d8 None None None None

None

None
K None 90% 2d10 35% 1d8 None None None

None

None
L None None None None None 50% 1d4

None

None
M None None None 90% 4d10 90% 2d8x10 55% 5d4

45% 2d6

None
N None None None None None None

None

40%2d4 potions
O None None None None None None

None

50%1d4 scrolls

Individual Treasures

Type Pieces of

Copper

Pieces of

Silver

Pieces of

Electrum

Pieces of

Gold

Pieces of

Platinum

Gems and

Jewelry

Magic Items
P 3d8 None None None None None

None

None
Q None 3d6 None None None None

None

None
R None None 2d6 None None None

None

None
S None None None 2d4 None None

None

None
T None None None None 1d6 None

None

None
U 50% 1d20 50% 1d20 None 25% 1d20 None 5% 1d4

5% 1d4

2%Any 1
V None 25% 1d20 25% 1d20 50% 1d20 25% 1d20 10% 1d4

10% 1d4

5%Any 1

Unguarded Treasures

Level 100's of

Copper

100's of

Silver

100's of

Electrum

100's of

Gold

100's of

Platinum

Gems and

Jewelry

Magic Items
1 75%1d8 50%1d6 25%1d4 7%1d4 1%1d4 7%1d4

3%1d4

2%Any 1
2 50%1d10 50%1d8 25%1d6 20%1d6 2%1d4 10%1d6

7%1d4

5%Any 1
3 30%2d6 50%1d10 25%1d8 50%1d6 4%1d4 15%1d6

7%1d6

8%Any 1
4-5 20%3d6 50%2d6 25%1d10 50%2d6 8%1d4 20%1d8

10%1d6

12%Any 1
6-7 15%4d6 50%3d6 25%1d12 70%2d8 15%1d4 30%1d8

15%1d6

16%Any 1
8+ 10%5d6 50%5d6 25%2d8 75%4d6 30%1d4 40%1d8

30%1d8

20%Any 1

Note: Unguarded treasures should be rare; see the Game Master section, below, for advice on placement of unguarded treasure.

Gems and Jewelry

Use the tables below to determine the base value and number found when gems are indicated in a treasure hoard. If the number generated in the main table above is small, roll for each gem; but if the number is large (10 or more, at the GM's option), after each roll for Type and Base Value, roll the indicated die to see how many such gems are in the hoard.

d% Type Base Value

in Gold Pieces

Number

Found

01-20 Ornamental 10 1d10
21-45 Semiprecious 50 1d8
46-75 Fancy 100 1d6
76-95 Precious 500 1d4
96-00 Gem 1000 1d2
Jewel 5000 1

The values of gems vary from the above for reasons of quality, size, etc. The GM may use the table below to adjust the values of the gems in the hoard, at his or her option. This is why there is no die result given in the table above for Jewel; on a roll of 12 on the table below, a Gem can become a Jewel.

2d6 Value Adjustment
2 Next Lower Value Row
3 1/2
4 3/4
5-9 Normal Value
10 1.5 Times
11 2 Times
12 Next Higher Value Row
d% Gem Type d% Gem Type
01-10 Greenstone 66-70 Topaz
11-20 Malachite 71-75 Bloodstone
21-28 Aventurine 76-79 Sapphire
29-38 Phenalope 80-89 Diamond
39-45 Amethyst 90-94 Fire Opal
46-54 Fluorospar 95-97 Ruby
55-60 Garnet 98-00 Emerald
61-65 Alexandrite

Standard items of jewelry are valued at 2d8x100 gp value. The table below can be used to generate descriptions of the items themselves.

d% Type d% Type
01-06 Anklet 56-62 Earring
07-12 Belt 63-65 Flagon
13-14 Bowl 66-68 Goblet
15-21 Bracelet 69-73 Knife
22-27 Brooch 74-77 Letter Opener
28-32 Buckle 78-80 Locket
33-37 Chain 81-82 Medal
38-40 Choker 83-89 Necklace
41-42 Circlet 90 Plate
43-47 Clasp 91-95 Pin
48-51 Comb 96 Sceptre
52 Crown 97-99 Statuette
53-55 Cup 00 Tiara

Magic Item Generation

Determine the sort of item found by rolling on the following table:

Any Weapon or Armor Any Exc. Weapons Type of Item
01-25 01-70 Weapon
26-35 71-00 01-12 Armor
36-55 13-40 Potion
56-85 41-79 Scroll
86-90 80-86 Ring
91-95 87-93 Wand, Staff, or Rod
96-00 94-00 Miscellaneous Magic

Magic Weapons

First, roll d% on the following table to determine the weapon type:

d% Weapon Type
01-02 Great Axe
03-09 Battle Axe
10-11 Hand Axe
12-19 Shortbow
20-27 Shortbow Arrow
28-31 Longbow
32-35 Longbow Arrow
36-43 Light Quarrel
44-47 Heavy Quarrel
48-59 Dagger
60-65 Shortsword
66-79 Longsword
80-81 Scimitar
82-83 Two-Handed Sword
84-86 Warhammer
87-94 Mace
95 Maul
96 Pole Arm
97 Sling Bullet
98-00 Spear

Next, roll on the Weapon Bonus tables. Follow the directions given if a roll on the Special Enemy or Special Ability tables are indicated; generally multiple rolls on the Special Ability table should be ignored when rolled.

d% Roll Weapon Bonus
Melee Missile Bonus
01-40 01-46 +1
41-50 47-58 +2
51-55 59-64 +3
56-57 +4
58 +5
59-75 65-82 +1, +2 vs. Special Enemy
76-85 83-94 +1, +3 vs. Special Enemy
86-95 Roll Again + Special Ability
96-98 95-98 Cursed, -1*
99-00 99-00 Cursed, -2*

* If cursed weapons are rolled along with special abilities, ignore the special ability roll.

1d6 Special Enemy 1d6 Special Enemy
1 Dragons 4 Regenerators
2 Enchanted 5 Spell Users
3 Lycanthropes 6 Undead
1d20 Special Ability
01-09 Casts Light on Command
10-11 Charm Person
12 Drains Energy
13-16 Flames on Command
17-19 Locate Objects
20 Wishes

Magic Armor

Generate the type and bonus of each item of magic armor on the tables below.

d% Armor Type d% Armor Bonus
01-09 Leather Armor 01-50 +1
10-28 Chain Mail 51-80 +2
29-43 Plate Mail 81-90 +3
44-00 Shield 91-95 Cursed *
96-00 Cursed, AC 11 **

* If Cursed armor is rolled, roll again and reverse the bonus (e.g., -1 instead of +1).

** This armor has AC 11 but appears to be +1 when tested.

Potions

d% Type d% Type d% Type
01-03 Clairaudience 26-32 Delusion 64-68 Heroism
04-06 Clairvoyance 33-35 Diminution 69-72 Invisibility
07-08 Cold Resistance 36-39 ESP 73-76 Invulnerability
09-11 Control Animal 40-43 Fire Resistance 77-80 Levitation
12-13 Control Dragon 44-47 Flying 81-84 Longevity
14-16 Control Giant 48-51 Gaseous Form 85-86 Poison
17-19 Control Human 52-55 Giant Strength 87-89 Polymorph Self
20-22 Control Plant 56-59 Growth 90-97 Speed
23-25 Control Undead 60-63 Healing 98-00 Treasure Finding

Scrolls

d% General Type
01-03 Cleric Spell Scroll (1 Spell)
04-06 Cleric Spell Scroll (2 Spells)
07-08 Cleric Spell Scroll (3 Spells)
09 Cleric Spell Scroll (4 Spells)
10-15 Magic-User Spell Scroll (1 Spell)
16-20 Magic-User Spell Scroll (2 Spells)
21-25 Magic-User Spell Scroll (3 Spells)
26-29 Magic-User Spell Scroll (4 Spells)
30-32 Magic-User Spell Scroll (5 Spells)
33-34 Magic-User Spell Scroll (6 Spells)
35 Magic-User Spell Scroll (7 Spells)
36-40 Cursed Scroll
41-46 Protection from Elementals
47-56 Protection from Lycanthropes
57-61 Protection from Magic
62-75 Protection from Undead
76-85 Map to Treasure Type A
86-89 Map to Treasure Type E
90-92 Map to Treasure Type G
93-00 Map to 1d4 Magic Items

Rings

d% Type
01-06 Control Animal
07-12 Control Human
13-19 Control Plant
20-30 Delusion
31-33 Djinni Summoning
34-44 Fire Resistance
45-57 Invisibility
58-66 Protection +1
67-70 Protection +2
71 Protection +3
72-73 Regeneration
74-75 Spell Storing
76-81 Spell Turning
82-83 Telekinesis
84-90 Water Walking
91-97 Weakness
98 Wishes
99-00 X-Ray Vision

Wands, Staves and Rods

d% Type
01-08 Rod of Cancellation
09-13 Snake Staff
14-17 Staff of Commanding
18-28 Staff of Healing
29-30 Staff of Power
31-34 Staff of Striking
35 Staff of Wizardry
36-40 Wand of Cold
41-45 Wand of Enemy Detection
46-50 Wand of Fear
51-55 Wand of Fireballs
56-60 Wand of Illusion
61-65 Wand of Lightning Bolts
66-73 Wand of Magic Detection
74-79 Wand of Paralyzation
80-84 Wand of Polymorph
85-92 Wand of Secret Door Detection
93-00 Wand of Trap Detection

Miscellaneous Magic Items

d% Type
01-04 Amulet of Proof against Detection and Location
05-06 Bag of Devouring
07-12 Bag of Holding
13-17 Boots of Levitation
18-22 Boots of Speed
23-27 Boots of Traveling and Leaping
28 Bowl Commanding Water Elementals
29 Brazier Commanding Fire Elementals
30-35 Broom of Flying
36 Censer Commanding Air Elementals
37-39 Cloak of Displacement
40-43 Crystal Ball
44-45 Crystal Ball with Clairaudience
46 Drums of Panic
47 Efreeti Bottle
48-54 Elven Boots
55-61 Elven Cloak
62-63 Flying Carpet
64-70 Gauntlets of Ogre Power
71-72 Girdle of Giant Strength
73-78 Helm of Reading Languages and Magic
79 Helm of Telepathy
80 Helm of Teleportation
81 Horn of Blasting
82 Horn of Doom
83-91 Medallion of ESP
92 Mirror of Life Trapping
93-97 Rope of Climbing
98-99 Scarab of Protection
00 Stone Commanding Earth Elementals

Explanation of Magic Items

Using Magic Items

To use a magic item, it must be activated, although sometimes activation simply means putting a ring on your finger. Some items, once donned, function constantly.

Many items are activated just by using them. For instance, a character has to drink a potion, swing a sword, interpose a shield to deflect a blow in combat, wear a ring, or don a cloak. Activation of these items is generally straightforward and self-explanatory. This doesn’t mean that if you use such an item, you automatically know what it can do. You must know (or at least guess) what the item can do and then use the item in order to activate it, unless the benefit of the item comes automatically, such as from drinking a potion or swinging a sword.

If no activation method is suggested either in the magic item description or by the nature of the item, assume that a command word is needed to activate it. Command word activation means that a character speaks the word and the item activates. No other special knowledge is needed.

A command word can be a real word, but when this is the case, the holder of the item runs the risk of activating the item accidentally by speaking the word in normal conversation. More often, the command word is some seemingly nonsensical word, or a word or phrase from an ancient language no longer in common use. Note that many magic items must be held in the hand (or otherwise specially handled or worn) to be used; the risk of accidental activation is less significant for such items.

Learning the command word for an item may be easy (sometimes the word is actually inscribed on the item) or it may be difficult, requiring the services of a powerful wizard or sage, or some other means of discovery.

Only the character holding or wearing a magic item may activate it. A character who has been gagged or silenced may not activate a magic item which requires a command word.

When an article of magic armor, clothing or jewelry (including a ring) is discovered, size is not usually an issue. Such items magically adjust themselves for wearers from as small as Halflings to as large as Humans. This effect is called accommodation. The GM may create “primitive” items lacking this power if he or she wishes.

Generally only one magical item of a given type may be worn at the same time. For example, a character can normally only wear one suit of armor, wear one necklace and carry one shield at a time. In the case of rings, a character may wear one magical ring per hand. If a character wears more items of a given type than would normally be practical, the items will usually fail to function due to interference with one another; for instance, wearing two rings on the same hand normally results in both rings failing to operate. Note, however, that this limitation cannot be used to disable cursed magic items. For example, wearing a cursed ring would prevent another magic ring from being worn and used on that hand, but the curse would not be lifted by donning a second magic ring.

Magic Weapons

Magic weapons are created with a variety of powers and will usually aid the wielder in combat. A magical weapon's bonus is applied to all attack and damage rolls made with the weapon.

Casts Light on Command: By drawing the weapon and uttering a command word, the wielder may cause it to glow; it will then shed light with the same radius as a light spell. Sheathing or laying down the weapon, or speaking the command word again, dispels the effect. This power may be used as often as desired.

Charm Person: This power allows the wielder to cast charm person once per day, as if by an 8th level Magic-User, by brandishing the weapon, speaking a command word and gazing at the target creature. (The wielder's gaze does not have to be met for the spell to be cast.) The target creature is allowed saving throws just as described in the spell description.

Drains Energy: A weapon with this power drains one life energy level on a hit, as described under Energy Drain in the Encounter section; up to 2d4 levels can be drained by a weapon with this power, after which time the weapon loses this power but retains any other magical effects or bonuses.

Flames on Command: Upon command, the weapon will be sheathed in fire. The fire does not harm the wielder. The effect remains until the command is given again, or until the weapon is dropped or sheathed. While it flames, all damage done by the weapon is treated as fire damage, and an additional +1 bonus (in addition to the weapon's normal bonus) is added to damage when fighting trolls, treants, and other creatures especially vulnerable to fire. It casts light and burns just as if it were a torch.

Locate Objects: This power allows the wielder to cast the spell locate object once per day, as if by an 8th level Magic-User.

Special Enemy: These weapons are created to combat a specific sort of creature, as rolled on the Special Ability table. When used against that specific enemy, the second listed bonus applies instead of the first; so a sword +1, +3 vs. Undead would provide +1 attack and damage against giant rats, but +3 attack and damage rolls against zombies.

Wishes: Weapons with this power have the ability to grant 1d4 wishes. The GM must adjudicate all wishes, and instructions are given in the Game Master section regarding this. After these wishes have been made, the weapon loses this power, but retains any other bonuses and powers.

Cursed Weapons inflict a penalty to the wielder's attack rolls, as rolled on the Weapon Bonus table. The curse causes the afflicted character to be unable to get rid of the weapon. There are two possible forms the curse may take: Obsession and Affliction. The GM may decide which to use at his or her option.

Obsession: Regardless of how severe the penalty is, the character wielding the weapon will believe it is a bonus and refuse to use any other weapon in combat. A remove curse spell is the only way to rid a character of such a weapon; but as he or she will believe the weapon is the best magical weapon ever, the character receives a saving throw vs. Spells to resist.

Affliction: The character knows the weapon is cursed as soon as he or she uses it in combat; however, any attempt to throw it away fails, as the weapon magically appears back in the character's hand whenever he or she tries to draw any other weapon. In this case, the remove curse spell needed to rid the character of the weapon will be unopposed (i.e. no saving throw).

Magic Armor

Magic armor (including shields) offers improved, magical protection to the wearer. In general, magic armor grants the normal Armor Class for its type, plus the magical armor bonus, as rolled on the Magic Armor table; for example, Plate Mail +2 provides an Armor Class of 19.

There are two varieties of cursed armor: Cursed Armor -1 and Cursed Armor AC 11. The first variety's AC is reduced by the rolled penalty; for example, Plate Mail -1 grants Armor Class 16. The second type is much worse, for regardless of the type, it only provides Armor Class 11. Dexterity and shield bonuses still apply.

Cursed armor cannot be removed from the wearer once the curse is proven, that is, once the wearer is hit in combat. Once the curse has taken effect, only a remove curse spell, or some more powerful magic (such as a wish), will enable the wearer to remove it. The armor will detect as magical, like any other magic armor; the curse cannot be detected by any means other than wearing the armor in combat.

Potions

A potion is an elixir concocted with a spell-like effect that affects only the drinker. Unless otherwise noted, a potion grants its benefits for 1d6+6 turns (even if the duration of an associated spell is longer or shorter).

Clairaudience: This potion enables the drinker to hear sounds in another area through the ears of a living creature in that area, up to a maximum 60' away. This effect otherwise functions just as the spell clairvoyance.

Clairvoyance: This potion grants the imbiber the effect of the clairvoyancespell.

Cold Resistance: This potion grants the imbiber the power of the spell resist cold.

Control Animal: This potion functions like a control human potion, but affects only normal, non-magical animals.

Control Dragon: This potion functions like a control human potion, but affects only dragons.

Control Giant: This potion functions like a control human potion, but affects only giants.

Control Human: This potion allows the drinker to charm a human, demi-human, or humanoid by gazing at them. The effect functions like the charm person spell. If the charm is resisted, the drinker can attempt to charm up to two more targets before the potion’s benefit is exhausted.

Control Plant: This potion grants the drinker control over one or more plants or plant creatures within a 10' square area up to 50' away. Normal plants become animated, having a movement rate of 10', and obey the drinker's commands. If ordered to attack, only the largest plants can do any real harm, attacking with a +0 attack bonus and inflicting 1d4 points of damage per hit. Affected plant creatures (who fail to save vs. Spells) can understand the drinker, and behave as if under a charm monster spell.

Control Undead: This potion grants the drinker command of 3d6 hit dice of undead monsters. A save vs. Spells is allowed to resist the effect. Mindless undead follow the drinker's commands exactly; free-willed undead act as if under a charm person spell.

Delusion: This cursed potion will appear, if tested or analyzed, to be one of the other potions (other than poison). When imbibed, the drinker will briefly believe he has received the benefits of the “other” potion, but the illusion will be swiftly exposed…

Diminution: This potion reduces the drinker and all items worn or carried to one-twelfth of his or her original height (so that a 6' tall character becomes 6” tall). The drinker's weight is divided by 1,728; this makes an armed warrior weigh less than 2.5 ounces. The affected creature cannot make an effective attack against any creature bigger than a house cat, but may be able to slip under doors or into cracks and has a 90% chance of moving about undetected (both in terms of sound and vision).

ESP: This potion grants the power of the spell of the same name.

Fire Resistance: This potion grants the imbiber the power of the spell resist fire.

Flying: This spell grants the power of the spell fly.

Gaseous Form: The drinker and all of his or her gear become insubstantial, misty, and translucent. He or she becomes immune to non-magical weapons, and has an Armor Class of 22 vs. magical weapons. The imbiber can’t attack or cast spells while in gaseous form. The drinker also loses supernatural abilities while in gaseous form. A gaseous creature can fly at a speed of 10', and can pass through small holes or narrow openings, even mere cracks, as long as the potion persists. The gaseous creature is subject to the effects of wind, and can’t enter water or other liquid. Objects cannot be manipulated in this form, even those brought along when the potion was imbibed. The drinker cannot resume material form at will, but must wait for the potion to expire; however, the potion may be quaffed in thirds, in which case each drink lasts 1d4+1 turns.

Giant Strength: This potion grants the imbiber the Strength of a giant. For the duration, the drinker gains a bonus of +5 on attack and damage rolls with melee or thrown weapons, and can throw large stones just as a stone giant can.

Growth: The drinker of this potion (with all equipment worn or carried) becomes twice normal height and eight times normal weight. The enlarged character is treated as having the Strength of a Stone Giant (but without the rock-throwing ability), gaining +5 on attack and damage rolls.

Healing: The imbiber of this potion receives 1d6+1 hit points of healing (as the spell cure light wounds).

Heroism: This potion improves the fighting ability of the drinker. Fighters of less than 3rd level gain +3 to attack bonus as well as gaining 3 hit dice. Fighters of 4th to 5th level gain +2 to attack bonus and 2 hit dice. Fighters of 6th or 7th level gain +1 to attack bonus and 1 hit die. Fighters of 8th level or higher, as well as non-Fighter class characters, gain no hit dice, but still receive +1 to attack bonus. Hit dice gained are only temporary, and damage received is deducted from those hit dice first; any that remain when the potion expires are simply lost.

Invisibility: This potion makes the imbiber invisible (as the spell). This potion may be quaffed in thirds, in which case each drink lasts 1d4+1 turns.

Invulnerability: This potion grants a bonus of +2 to Armor Class.

Levitation: This potion grants the power of the spell levitate.

Longevity: The drinker of this potion becomes younger by 1d10 years.

Poison: This isn't a potion at all, it's a trap. The drinker must save vs. Poison or die, even if only a sip was imbibed.

Polymorph Self: This potion grants the power of the spell of the same name.

Speed: This potion gives the drinker the benefits of the spell haste.

Treasure Finding: The imbiber of this potion will immediately know the direction and approximate distance to the largest treasure hoard in a 300' spherical radius. This potion specifically detects platinum, gold, electrum, silver, and copper; gemstones and magic items are not detected.

Scrolls

Most scrolls contain some sort of magic which is activated when read, and which may only be used once; the characters burn away as the words are read.

Spell Scrolls are enchanted with one or more Cleric or Magic-User spells (never both sorts on the same scroll). Each spell can be used just once, though of course the same spell may appear multiple times on a single scroll. Use the table below to determine the spell level of each spell on a scroll. Only a Cleric can use a Clerical scroll, and only a Magic-User can use a Magic-User scroll.

Magic-Users must cast read magic on a spell scroll before being able to use it; each scroll needs to be treated in this way just once, and the effect lasts indefinitely thereafter. If a Magic-User attempts to cast a spell from a scroll, and he or she does not know that spell, there is a 10% chance the spell will fail. If a spell on a scroll is of higher level than the highest level spell the Magic-User can cast, for each spell level of difference, add 10% to the chance of failure. For example, Aura the 3rd level Magic-User attempts to cast polymorph self from a scroll. Aura is able to cast, at most, 2nd level spells. Polymorph self is a 4th level spell, so Aura has a chance of failure of 10% (she doesn't know the spell) plus 20% (2nd level maximum vs. 4th level spell), for a total of 30%.

Clerical scrolls are written in a normal language (being just specially enchanted prayers), so the Cleric merely needs to know the language in which the scroll is written in order to use it. Clerics suffer the same chance of failure as do Magic-Users, save that the 10% penalty assigned for not knowing the spell does not apply.

Spell Scrolls: Spell Level

d% Level of Spell
01-30 1st
31-55 2nd
56-75 3rd
76-88 4th
89-97 5th
98-00 6th

A Cursed Scroll inflicts some curse upon whoever reads it. It need not be read completely; in fact, merely glancing at the text is enough to inflict the curse. A saving throw may or may not be allowed, as determined by the GM (though a save vs. Spells should usually be allowed). The GM is encouraged to be creative when creating curses; the spell bestow curse (the reverse of remove curse) can be used for inspiration, but cursed scrolls can contain more powerful or inventive curses at the GM's discretion.

Protection Scrolls can be read by any character class, assuming the character can read the language the scroll is written in (see the notes under Language in the Character section for details). When read, a protection scroll creates a 10' radius protective circle around the reader; preventing the warded creatures from entering. The circle moves with the reader. Any creature other than the sort the scroll wards may enter, including of course the allies of the scroll-reader, who are themselves protected so long as they remain entirely within the circle. If any creature within the circle performs a melee attack against any of the warded creatures, the circle is broken and the warded creatures may freely attack. Normal protection scrolls last for 2 turns after being read.

Protection from Magic scrolls are special, as they protect against magic spells and items rather than creatures. No magical effect can cross the 10' circle of protection in either direction for 1d4 turns. As with the other protection scrolls, the circle created by this scroll moves with the reader.

Treasure Maps are generally non-magical. They must be created by the GM, although he or she may delay creating the map until the characters can actually use it. The treasure indicated on the map will normally be guarded by some sort of monster, determined by the GM as desired.

Rings

A ring is a circular metal band worn on the finger (no more than one ring per hand) that has a spell-like power (often a constant effect that affects the wearer).

Control Animal: The wearer of this ring can charm up to 6 hit dice of animals. The effect works much like a charm person spell, but only affects animals (including giant-sized animals, but excluding fantastic creatures as well as anything more intelligent than a dog or cat). The wearer can activate the power at will, targeting any animal within 60' that he or she can see. The wearer may choose to end the effect for one or more controlled creatures at any time, in order to “free” enough hit dice to control a new target.

Control Human: The wearer of this ring may cast the spell charm person at any target he or she can see within 60'. The wearer can use this power once per round, at will, but cannot control more than 6 hit dice of creatures at a time; however, the wearer may choose to end the effect for one or more controlled creatures at any time, in order to “free” enough hit dice to control a new target.

Control Plant: The wearer of this ring may create an effect equivalent to a potion of plant control at will, affecting plants or plant creatures within 60' that he or she can see. The effect lasts as long as the wearer remains within 60' of the plants or plant creatures. A saving throw is allowed just as for the potion.

Delusion: This ring appears to be some other sort of ring (roll again on the rings table to determine what sort). Whoever wears it believes it is working, and behaves thus (so a character who believes he is wearing a ring of invisibility will believe himself to actually be invisible). Unlike the potion of the same name, the ring's effect is not dispelled by the wearer taking damage; in fact, the only way to rid a character of this cursed item is with the spell remove curse.

Djinni Summoning: This ring serves as a special gate by means of which a specific djinni can be called from the Elemental Plane of Air. When the ring is rubbed, the djinni appears on the next round. The djinni faithfully obeys and serves the wearer of the ring, but never for more than 1 hour per day. If the djinni of the ring is ever killed, the ring becomes non-magical and worthless.

Fire Resistance: The wearer of this ring receives protection as the spell resist fire, but the protection works continually.

Invisibility: By activating this simple silver ring, the wearer can benefit from invisibility, as the spell. If the invisibility is dispelled (as described for the spell), the ring may not be reactivated for one full turn. The invisibility effect otherwise lasts for 24 hours.

Protection: This ring offers continual magical protection in the form of a bonus to the Armor Class of the wearer (varying from +1 to +3 as shown on the table). This bonus is also applied to the wearer's saving throw die rolls.

Regeneration: This ring grants the wearer the power of regeneration, exactly as described in the description of the troll, including the weakness with respect to acid and fire damage. However, only damage taken while wearing the ring is regenerated.

Spell Storing: A ring of spell storing contains a number of Magic-User spells that the wearer can cast. Each spell has a caster level equal to the minimum level needed to cast that spell. Any class may wear and use this ring, but it can only be recharged by a Magic-User casting the appropriate spell into it. A table is provided below to determine how many spells, and what levels they are. A ring of spell storing must be recharged with the same spells that were placed into it when it was made; so a ring of two spell storing containing fireball and fly can only be recharged with those two spells. The ring magically imparts to the wearer the names of all spells stored within it. A ring found in a treasure hoard may be completely charged, or discharged, or partially charged, at the GM's option.

d% # of Spells d% Level of Spell
01-24 1 01-30 1st
25-48 2 31-55 2nd
49-67 3 56-75 3rd
68-81 4 76-85 4th
82-91 5 86-97 5th
92-96 6 98-00 6th
97-00 7

Spell Turning: This ring reflects spells cast directly at the wearer, but not area effect spells, back at the caster; so a hold person spell would be reflected, but not a fireball. It will reflect up to 2d6 spells before its power is exhausted.

Telekinesis: The wearer of this ring can use the power of the spell telekinesis, as if cast by a 12th level Magic-User. The effect may be used as many times per day as the wearer wishes, but lasts only as long as the wearer concentrates on it.

Water Walking: This ring allows the wearer to walk on any liquid as if it were firm ground. Mud, oil, snow, quicksand, running water, ice, and even lava can be traversed easily, since the wearer’s feet hover an inch or two above the surface. Molten lava will still cause the wearer damage from the heat since he or she is still near it. The wearer can walk, run, or otherwise move across the surface as if it were normal ground.

Weakness: Whoever puts this ring on is cursed; his or her Strength score is reduced immediately to 3. The ring can only be removed with remove curse.

Wishes: A ring of wishes contains the power to grant wishes to the wearer. 1d4 wishes will remain within the ring when it is found. The GM must adjudicate all wishes, and instructions are given in the Game Master section regarding this.

X-Ray Vision: On command, this ring gives its possessor the ability to see into and through solid matter. Vision range is 20 feet, with the viewer seeing as if he were looking at something in normal light even if there is no illumination. X-ray vision can penetrate 1 foot of stone, 1 inch of common metal, or up to 3 feet of wood or dirt. Thicker substances or a thin sheet of lead or gold blocks the vision. The ring may be used three times per day, and each use lasts at most one turn (or until the wearer ceases to concentrate upon it).

Wands, Staves and Rods

A wand is a short stick, generally 12 to 18 inches long, imbued with the power to cast a specific spell or spell-like effect. A newly created wand has 20 charges, and each use of the wand depletes one of those charges; a wand found in a treasure hoard will have 2d10 charges remaining. If a wand generates an effect equivalent to a spell, assume the spell functions as if cast by a 6th level caster, or the lowest level caster who could cast that spell (whichever is higher), unless otherwise noted. Wands are generally usable only by Magic-Users. Saving throws are rolled as normal, but on the Magic Wands column rather than the Spells column.

A staff has a number of different (but often related) spell effects. A newly created staff has 30 charges, and each use of the staff depletes one or more of those charges. A staff found in a treasure hoard will have 3d10 charges remaining. Spell effects generated by a staff operate at 8th level, or the lowest caster level the spell could be cast by, whichever is higher, unless otherwise stated. Staves are usable only by Magic-Users, except where noted. Saving throws against magic from a staff are rolled on the Spells column.

A rod is a scepter-like item with a special power unlike that of any known spell. Rods are normally usable by any class.

Rod of Cancellation: This dreaded rod is a bane to magic items, for its touch drains an item of all magical properties. If the item is held by a creature, an attack roll is needed to touch it. Upon draining an item, the rod itself becomes brittle and cannot be used again. Drained items are only restorable by a wish.

Snake Staff: This item is a walking staff +1. When used by a Cleric, the user may command the staff to transform into a constrictor snake (instead of causing damage) on a successful hit. The snake will wrap around a target up to man sized and hold him or her fast for 1d4 turns, unless a save vs. Spells is made. The snake does not attack in any other way, nor cause any damage. The snake may be recalled by the user at any point, in which case it returns to his or her hand and returns to staff form. It also returns in this way when the duration expires, or if the save is made. The snake has Armor Class 15, moves 20' per round and has 20 hit points; any hit points of damage taken are healed completely when the snake returns to staff form; if killed in snake form, the magic is destroyed and it turns into a broken stick. The staff may be used any number of times per day, and neither has nor uses charges.

Staff of Commanding: This staff can cast charm person and charm monster spells, and can grant a power equivalent to a potion of plant control. Each function uses one charge.

Staff of Healing: This staff can heal 1d6+1 hit points per charge expended, as the spell cure light wounds. Alternately, with an expenditure of two charges, the staff can cast cure disease. This staff is only usable by a Cleric.

Staff of Power: This is a very potent magic item, with offensive and defensive abilities. It is usually topped with a glistening gem, its shaft straight and smooth. It has the following powers costing one charge per use: lightning bolt(6d6 damage), fireball (6d6 damage), cone of cold (as the wand, for 6d6 damage), continual light, and telekinesis (as the ring, lasting at most 1d6 turns). The staff is also a +2 walking staff, and can be used exactly as a staff of striking. A staff of power can be used for a retributive strike, requiring it to be broken by its wielder. All charges currently in the staff are instantly released in a 30' radius, doing 1d6 damage per charge remaining (save vs. Spells for half damage). All within the area, including the wielder, are affected by this.

After all charges are used up from the staff, it remains a +2 walking staff. Once empty of charges, it cannot be used for a retributive strike.

Staff of Striking: This staff has no attack bonus, but is treated as a +1 weapon with respect to what sorts of monsters it can hit (and is usable by any class in that mode). This staff's primary power may only be used if wielded by a Cleric: By uttering a command word, the Cleric may create an effect similar to the spell striking. Expenditure of one charge adds 1d6 damage to the weapon's next strike; expenditure of two charges adds 2d6, and expenditure of three charges adds 3d6 damage. If the weapon is not successfully used after the command word has been spoken, the effect dissipates after one turn.

Staff of Wizardry: This staff is equivalent to the staff of power, above, and has the following powers as well: invisibility, passwall, web, and conjure elementals (as the spell, but conjuring staff elementals as described in the Monsters section). These powers each use one charge when activated.

Wand of Cold: This wand generates a conical blast of cold doing 6d8 damage (save vs. Magic Wands for half damage). The cone spreads from the tip of the wand to a width of 30' at a distance of 40' away.

Wand of Enemy Detection: The effect of this wand is to make all enemies of the user within 60' glow with a greenish white light for one round. Even hidden or invisible enemies glow in this way, revealing them, but enemies completely out of sight (such as behind a wall) may not be seen by the user. An “enemy” is any creature which is thinking of or otherwise intending to harm the user; also, all undead monsters and animated constructs within range will glow in this way regardless of intent or thoughts (or lack thereof).

Wand of Fear: This wand generates the effect of the spell cause fear (the reverse of the spell remove fear).

Wand of Fireballs: This wand generates fireballs, exactly as the spell, doing 6d6 damage.

Wand of Illusion: This wand allows the user to create illusions equivalent to the spell phantasmal force.

Wand of Lightning Bolts: This wand generates lightning bolts, exactly as the spell, doing 6d6 damage.

Wand of Magic Detection: This wand grants the user a power equivalent to the spell detect magic.

Wand of Paralyzation: This wand creates the effect of the spell hold person.

Wand of Polymorph: This wand can be used to cast either polymorph self or polymorph other.

Wand of Secret Door Detection: This wand grants the user a power similar to the spell find traps, but which reveals secret doors rather than traps.

Wand of Trap Detection: This wand grants the user a power equivalent to the spell find traps.

Miscellaneous Magic Items

Amulet of Proof against Detection and Location: The wearer of this item is immune to all forms of scrying (including crystal balls, clairvoyance, clairaudience, and any other means of location or spying at a distance) as well as any form of mind reading (such as the spell ESP). Other characters who remain within 30' of the wearer are also immune to scrying, but not to mind reading.

Bag of Devouring: This bag appears to be an ordinary sack. Detection for magical properties makes it seem as if it were a bag of holding, and in fact it performs exactly like one when first used. However, all items placed within disappear forever 1d6+6 turns later. The bag continues to weigh whatever it did after the items were placed within it (that is, one-tenth the total weight of the items), until it is again opened and discovered to be empty.

Bag of Holding: This appears to be a common cloth sack about 2 feet by 4 feet in size. The bag of holding opens into an extradimensional space, and is able to hold more than should be possible: up to 500 pounds of weight, and up to 70 cubic feet of volume. A bag of holding weighs one-tenth as much as the total of the objects held within. Any object to be stored in a bag of holding must fit through the opening, which has a circumference of 4 feet.

If the bag is overloaded, or if sharp objects pierce it (from inside or outside), the bag ruptures and is ruined. All contents are lost forever. If a bag of holding is turned inside out, its contents spill out, unharmed, but the bag must be put right before it can be used again. If living creatures are placed within the bag, they can survive for up to one turn, after which time they suffocate. Retrieving a specific item from a bag of holding takes a full round during which no movement may be made.

Boots of Levitation: On command, these leather boots allow the wearer to levitate as if by the spell of the same name.

Boots of Speed: The wearer of these boots can click his or her boot heels together, thus activating a hastespell effect for up to 10 rounds each day. The duration of the hasteeffect need not be consecutive rounds; the boots can be turned off and on as desired.

Boots of Traveling and Leaping: These boots increase the wearer’s base land speed by an additional 10' per round. In addition to this traveling ability, these boots allow the wearer to make great leaps, jumping up to 10' high and/or 30' across.

Bowl Commanding Water Elementals: This large container is usually fashioned from blue or green semiprecious stone. It is about 1 foot in diameter, half that deep, and relatively fragile. When the bowl is filled with fresh water, and certain words are spoken, a water elemental appears and follows the commands of the summoner (as described for the Elemental monster entry). The summoning words require 1 full round to speak. Only one such elemental can be called per day.

Brazier Commanding Fire Elementals: This device appears to be a normal container for holding burning coals. When a fire is lit in the brazier and the proper summoning words are spoken, a fire elemental appears and follows the commands of the summoner (as described for the Elemental monster entry). The summoning words require 1 full round to speak. Only one such elemental can be called per day.

Broom of Flying: This broom is able to fly through the air for up to 9 hours per day (split up as its owner desires). The broom can carry 200 pounds and fly at a speed of 40 feet, or up to 400 pounds at a speed at 30 feet. In addition, the broom can travel alone to any destination named by the owner as long as he or she has a good idea of the location and layout of that destination. It comes to its owner from as far away as 300 yards when the command word is spoken.

Censer Commanding Air Elementals: This 6-inch-wide, 1-inch-high perforated golden vessel resembles a thurible found in a place of worship. If it is filled with incense and lit, summoning words spoken over it summon forth an air elemental which follows the commands of the summoner (as described for the Elemental monster entry). The summoning words require 1 full round to speak. Only one such elemental can be called per day.

Cloak of Displacement: This item appears to be a normal cloak, but when worn by a character its magical properties distort and warp light waves, causing the wearer's apparent location to shift around constantly over a range of 3' from his or her true location. The first melee or missile attack by any creature against the wearer will miss, and all further attacks by that attacker are made with an attack penalty of -2. This is not cumulative with the penalty for fighting blind.

Crystal Ball: This is the most common form of scrying device, a crystal sphere about 6 inches in diameter. They may only be used by Magic-Users, who can use the device to see over virtually any distance. A crystal ball can be used three times per day, for up to a turn each time.

The chance of success when using a crystal ball is as shown below. Total chances equal to or greater than 100% do not require a roll.

Knowledge and Connection Chance
Secondhand Knowledge (heard of) 25%
Firsthand Knowledge (seen briefly) 55%
Familiar (known well) 95%
Possession or garment +25%
Body part, lock of hair, bit of nail, etc. +50%

The user of the crystal ball is the only one who will see the image. No sound will be heard normally. Detect magic, detect evil, and ESP have a 3% chance per level of the caster of operating correctly if used with a crystal ball.

Crystal Ball with Clairaudience: This item works exactly like the standard crystal ball, above, but also allows the user to hear any sounds in the location viewed as if he or she were there.

Drums of Panic: These drums are kettle drums (hemispheres about 1-1/2 feet in diameter on stands). They come in pairs and are unremarkable in appearance. If both of the pair are sounded, all creatures of less than 6 hit dice within 120' (with the exception of those within a 20' radius safe zone around the drums) must save vs. Spells or flee in fear. The drums can be used once per day.

Efreeti Bottle: This item is typically fashioned of brass or bronze, with a lead stopper bearing special seals; or, it may be a lamp made of brass. A thin stream of smoke is often seen issuing from it. The bottle can be opened once per day. When opened, the efreeti imprisoned within issues from the bottle instantly. There is a 10% chance (01–10 on d%) that the efreeti is insane and attacks immediately upon being released. There is also a 10% chance (91–100) that the efreeti of the bottle grants three wishes. In either case, the efreeti afterward disappears forever. The other 80% of the time (11–90), the inhabitant of the bottle loyally serves the character for up to an hour per day for 101 days (or until the efreeti’s death), doing as he or she commands. After 101 days have passed, the efreeti is freed from service and may return to its extradimensional home. Roll only the first time the bottle is opened (or the GM may choose which sort of bottle is found as he or she desires).

Elven Boots: These soft boots enable the wearer to move quietly in virtually any surroundings, granting a 90% chance of success when moving silently (as the Thief ability of the same name).

Elven Cloak: This cloak of neutral gray cloth is indistinguishable from an ordinary cloak of the same color. However, when worn with the hood drawn up around the head, the wearer becomes nearly invisible, granting an 80% chance that the wearer can move about unnoticed. If detected by onlookers, the wearer can be attacked without significant penalty.

Flying Carpet: This rug is able to fly through the air on command. A flying carpet is typically 5' x 8' in size and can carry up to 500 pounds at a movement rate of 100' per round, or up to 1000 pounds (its maximum capacity) at a rate of 50' per round. A flying carpet can fly at any speed up to its maximum, and can hover on command.

Gauntlets of Ogre Power: These gauntlets are made of tough leather with iron studs running across the back of the hands and fingers. They grant the wearer a Strength bonus of +4 (instead of his or her own Strength bonus). Both gauntlets must be worn for the magic to be effective.

Girdle of Giant Strength: This item grants the wearer the Strength of a giant. For so long as it is worn, the wearer gains a Strength bonus of +5 (instead of his or her own Strength bonus), and can throw large stones just as a stone giant does.

Helm of Reading Languages and Magic: Appearing as a normal helmet, this helm grants its wearer the ability to understand the spoken words of any creature and to read text in any language and any magical writing. Note that the limitations described under the spell read languages apply to this device also. Understanding a magical text does not necessarily imply spell use.

Helm of Telepathy: The wearer can read the surface thoughts of a target creature within 90' as if using the spell ESP. Furthermore, he or she can send a telepathic message to anyone whose surface thoughts are thus being read (allowing two-way communication). This helm may be used up to three times per day.

Helm of Teleportation: A character wearing this device may teleportthree times per day, exactly as if he or she had cast the spell of the same name.

Horn of Blasting: This horn appears to be a normal trumpet. It can be sounded as a normal horn, but if the command word is spoken and the instrument is then played, it deals 2d6 points of damage to creatures within a cone 40' long and 40' wide at the far end, and causes them to be deafened for 2d6 rounds. Affected creatures may save vs. Death Ray, taking half damage and avoiding deafness if the save is made. Crystalline creatures take double damage. Nonliving creatures are generally immune to deafness, but still suffer damage as described.

If a horn of blasting is used magically more than once in a given day, there is a 10% cumulative chance with each extra use that it explodes and deals 3d6 points of damage to the person sounding it.

The horn can also be used to damage or destroy buildings, fortifications, etc. Double the damage listed above when a horn of blasting is used against a structure. The Stronghold rules in the Game Master section contains further guidance on this.

Horn of Doom: When blown, this horn will create animated skeletons or zombies as if by the spell animate dead. Up to 3d6 hit dice of undead monsters will be so created from remains within a 60' radius of the character who blew the horn. If both skeletal and fleshy remains are available in the area of effect, skeletons will be animated in preference over zombies. If the user is a magic-user or cleric, the created undead may be controlled so long as that character retains the horn. If blown by a fighter or thief, the undead created will be uncontrolled. Uncontrolled undead monsters will attack any living creatures nearby. The horn may be used once per day, but no more than 18 hit dice of undead created by the horn may exist at any one time.

Medallion of ESP: This appears to be a normal pendant disk hung from a neck chain. Usually fashioned from bronze, copper, or nickel-silver, the medallion allows the wearer to read the thoughts of others, as with the spell ESP. It can be used as many times per day as desired, but each such usage requires a minimum of 1 round of full concentration to activate, and the wearer must continue to concentrate to maintain the effect.

Mirror of Life Trapping: This crystal device is usually about 4 feet square and framed in metal or wood. It can be hung or placed on a surface and then activated by giving a command word. Only a Magic-User can properly control this device. The same command word deactivates the mirror. The character who activates the device is immune to it. The mirror has twenty extradimensional cells within it; any creature coming within 30' of the device and looking at its own reflection must make a save vs. Spells or be trapped within the mirror in one of the cells.

When a creature is trapped, it is taken bodily into the mirror. Size is not a factor, but constructs and undead are not trapped. A victim’s equipment (including clothing and anything being carried) is taken also. The mirror’s owner can call the reflection of any creature trapped within to its surface and engage the powerless prisoner in conversation. He or she can also free any trapped creature by verbal command.

If the mirror’s capacity is exceeded, one victim (determined randomly) is set free in order to accommodate the latest one. If the mirror is broken, all victims currently trapped in it are freed.

Rope of Climbing: This 50' long rope is no thicker than a wand, but it is strong enough to support 3,000 pounds. Upon command, the rope snakes forward, upward, downward, or in any other direction at 10' per round, attaching itself securely wherever its owner desires. It can unfasten itself and return in the same manner. The rope must have something to tie itself to in order to support weight other than its own. One end of the rope must be held by the user when its magic is invoked.

Scarab of Protection: This device appears to be a silver medallion in the shape of a beetle. The scarab absorbs energy-draining attacks, death effects, and curses. Upon absorbing 2d6 such attacks, the scarab crumbles to dust and is destroyed.

Stone Commanding Earth Elementals: A stone of this nature is typically an oddly shaped piece of roughly polished rock. The possessor of such a stone need but utter a few words of summoning, and a Huge earth elemental comes to the summoner and follows the commands of the summoner (as described for the Elemental monster entry). The summoning words require 1 full round to speak. Only one such elemental can be called per day.

PART 8: GAME MASTER INFORMATION

Wandering Monsters

We had the foresight to bring several large sacks with us, and we swiftly filled them with coins and gems from beneath the sarcophagus. Without further delay we moved out, intent upon reaching the stairs to the surface and then returning to Morgansfort. But it couldn't be that easy…

On the way in, Barthal scouted ahead and we took our time, constantly on the lookout for monsters. On the way out, we threw caution to the wind, moving at full speed with Barthal watching behind us. So it was that Morningstar and I turned a corner and practically stepped on the first rank of a goblin patrol!

Once again I was caught flatfooted, but so were the goblins. Morningstar reacted more swiftly, striking down the first of the little monsters. You might think that parley would have been a better idea, but we had already tried that with these goblins without success… so I couldn't blame the Elf for striking first and asking questions later.

I raised the golden sword and waded into battle…

Dungeon Encounters

Besides “placed” monsters, dungeons usually contain wandering monsters. The Game Master may create special wandering monster tables for specific dungeons, or the general wandering monster tables (below) may be used.

In an average dungeon, a wandering monster encounter will occur on a roll of 1 on 1d6; the Game Master should check once every 3 turns. The circumstances of a specific dungeon may call for higher odds or more frequent (or possibly less frequent) wandering monster checks.

Die Roll Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
1 Bee, Giant Beetle, Giant Bombardier Ant, Giant
2 Goblin Fly, Giant Ape, Carnivorous
3 Green Slime* Ghoul Beetle, Giant Tiger
4 Kobold Gnoll Bugbear
5 NPC Party: Adventurer Gray Ooze Doppleganger
6 NPC Party: Bandit Hobgoblin Gargoyle*
7 Orc Lizard Man Gelatinous Cube
8 Skeleton NPC Party: Adventurer Lycanthrope, Wererat*
9 Snake, Cobra Snake, Pit Viper Ogre
10 Spider, Giant Crab Spider, Giant Black Widow Shadow*
11 Stirge Troglodyte Tentacle Worm
12 Wolf Zombie Wight*
Die Roll Level 4-5 Level 6-7 Level 8+
1 Bear, Cave Basilisk Black Pudding
2 Caecilia, Giant Black Pudding Chimera
3 Cockatrice Caecilia, Giant Giant, Hill
4 Doppleganger Displacer Giant, Stone
5 Gray Ooze Hydra Hydra
6 Hellhound Lycanthrope, Weretiger* Lycanthrope, Wereboar*
7 Lycanthrope, Werewolf* Mummy* Purple Worm
8 Minotaur Owlbear Salamander, Flame*
9 Ochre Jelly* Rust Monster* Salamander, Frost*
10 Owlbear Scorpion, Giant Vampire*
11 Rust Monster* Spectre*
12 Wraith* Troll

Wilderness Encounters

The Game Master should check for random encounters in the wilderness about every four hours of game time; this translates nicely to three night checks and three daytime checks. If your players choose to stand three night watches, you simply check for each watch; in the daytime, check morning, afternoon, and evening.

To check for a wilderness encounter, roll 1d6; on a roll of 1, an encounter occurs. If a wilderness encounter is indicated, roll 2d8 on the appropriate table below. The Game Master should think carefully about how the encounter happens; check for surprise in advance, and if the monster is not surprised, it may be considered to have had time to set up an ambush (at the GM's option).

Die Roll Desert or Barren Grassland Inhabited Territories
2 Dragon, Blue Dragon, Green Dragon, Gold
3 Hellhound Troll Ghoul
4 Giant, Fire Fly, Giant Bugbear
5 Purple Worm Scorpion, Giant Goblin
6 Fly, Giant NPC Party: Bandit Centaur
7 Scorpion, Giant Lion NPC Party: Bandit
8 Camel Boar, Wild NPC Party: Merchant
9 Spider, Giant Tarantula NPC Party: Merchant NPC Party: Pilgrim
10 NPC Party: Merchant Wolf NPC Party: Noble
11 Hawk Bee, Giant Dog
12 NPC Party: Bandit Gnoll Gargoyle*
13 Ogre Goblin Gnoll
14 Griffon Blink Dog Ogre
15 Gnoll Wolf, Dire Minotaur
16 Dragon, Red Giant, Hill Vampire*
Die Roll Jungle Mountains or Hills Ocean
2 Dragon, Green Dragon, White Dragon, Sea
3 NPC Party: Bandit Roc(1d6:1-3 Large,

4-5 Huge,

6 Giant)

Hydra
4 Goblin Displacer Whale, Sperm
5 Hobgoblin Lycanthrope, Werewolf* Crocodile, Giant
6 Centipede, Giant Mountain Lion Crab, Giant
7 Snake, Giant Python Wolf Whale, Killer
8 Elephant Spider, Giant Crab Octopus, Giant
9 Antelope Hawk Shark, Mako
10 Jaguar Orc NPC Party: Merchant
11 Stirge Bat, Giant NPC Party: Buccaneer (Pirate)
12 Beetle, Giant Tiger Hawk, Giant Shark, Bull
13 Caecilia, Giant Giant, Hill Roc (1d8: 1-5 Huge, 6-8 Giant)
14 Shadow* Chimera Shark, Great White
15 NPC Party: Merchant Wolf, Dire Mermaid
16 Lycanthrope, Weretiger* Dragon, Red Sea Serpent
Die Roll River or Riverside Swamp Woods or Forest
2 Dragon, Black Dragon, Black Dragon, Green
3 Fish, Giant Piranha Shadow* Alicorn (see Unicorn)
4 Stirge Troll Treant
5 Fish, Giant Bass Lizard, Giant Draco Orc
6 NPC Party: Merchant Centipede, Giant Boar, Wild
7 Lizardman Leech, Giant Bear, Black
8 Crocodile Lizardman Hawk, Giant
9 Frog, Giant Crocodile Antelope
10 Fish, Giant Catfish Stirge Wolf
11 NPC Party: Buccaneer Orc Ogre
12 Troll Toad, Giant (see Frog, Giant) Bear, Grizzly
13 Jaguar Troglodyte Wolf, Dire
14 Nixie Blood Rose Giant, Hill
15 Water Termite, Giant Hangman Tree Owlbear
16 Dragon, Green Basilisk Unicorn

City, Town or Village Encounters

It's important for the Game Master to remember that, unlike dungeon or wilderness environments, cities, towns and villages are busy places. During the day, most towns will have people on the streets more or less all the time; the absence of people on the streets is often an indication of something interesting. By night, much of the town will be dark and quiet, and encounters will be mostly Thieves or other unsavory types; but near popular eating (or drinking) establishments, people of all sorts are still likely to be encountered. The GM must make sure that his or her descriptions of the town environment make this clear; of course, this will also make it harder for the players to identify “real” encounters.

The GM is encouraged to create his or her own encounter tables for use in each city, town or village created (or assign encounters by other means if desired); however, a set of “generic” encounter tables are provided below for those times when such preparation has not been completed. Roll 2d6 on the table below to determine what sort of encounter occurs; a description of each type of encounter appears below the table.

Die Roll Day Encounter Night Encounter
2 Doppleganger Doppleganger
3 Noble Shadow*
4 Thief Press Gang
5 Bully Beggar
6 City Watch Thief
7 Merchant Bully
8 Beggar Merchant
9 Priest Giant Rat
10 Mercenary City Watch
11 Wizard Wizard
12 Lycanthrope, Wererat* Lycanthrope, Wererat*

Beggar encounters will often begin with a single beggar approaching the party, but there will generally be 2d4 beggars in the area, and if any party member gives anything to the first beggar, the others will descend on the party like flies. Each beggar is 90% likely to be a normal man, and 10% likely to be a 1st level Thief, possibly scouting for the Thieves Guild or a local gang.

Bully encounters will be with 2d4 young toughs; each is 70% likely to be a normal man, 30% likely to be a 1st level Fighter. Bullies generally appear unarmed, depending on their brawling ability in a fight (but keeping a dagger or shortsword hidden, to be used in case the fight is going against them). Bullies can be a bit unpredictable, such that the GM may want to use a reaction roll to determine the leader's mood.

City Watch encounters will be with 2d6 watchmen, all 1st level Fighters save for the squad leader, who will be from 2nd through 4th level. They will confront “suspicious-looking” characters, but generally will need a good reason before they attempt to arrest or otherwise interfere with player characters.

Doppleganger encounters will, of course, appear to be some other type of encounter; the GM should roll again to determine what the doppleganger is masquerading as. 1d6 dopplegangers will be encountered; any extra group members will be humans who do not know they are traveling in the company of shapeshifting monsters. If the party is “interesting” to the dopplegangers, one or more of the monsters will attempt to follow them and replace a party member (as described in the monster description). In many cases, player character parties will not discover the true nature of the encounter until much later.

Giant Rat encounters will generally involve alleys, the docks, or other “low” places. Rats are generally not dangerous unless provoked, but if surprised they may attack. See the monster description for details of this encounter type.

Lycanthrope, Wererat encounters will appear to be some other type of encounter, either another sort of “normal” encounter or a giant rat encounter (depending on the circumstances). Wererats are cowardly and will not attack a party of equal or larger size.

Mercenary encounters will involve 2d6 members of a mercenary company, going about some business or other. A mercenary leader may offer a position to Fighter-classed player characters if they have any reputation at all.

Merchants are a common feature of towns, and may be encountered performing any sort of business. As with mercenary encounters, merchants may offer jobs to interesting player characters, particularly those with good reputations. See Creating an NPC Party, below, for details on this type of encounter. (A merchant in a town may not have a full entourage as described below; the GM should use his or her discretion in creating the encounter.)

Nobles encountered may also offer positions to player characters, or possibly offer a reward for some dangerous task. Player characters with bad reputations may be confronted, ordered to leave town, or even arrested if the noble is able to call for the city watch. (See Creating an NPC Party, below, for details on this type of encounter.) A noble in a town may not have a full entourage as described below; the GM should use his or her discretion in creating the encounter.

Press Gangs will consist of 2d6 Fighters, all 1st level except for one or two leaders of 2nd through 5th level. They will be armed with blunt weapons or possibly will fight with their bare hands, since their goal is to capture rather than kill player characters; however, it is likely that at least some members of a press gang will have daggers or swords on their persons in case a serious fight breaks out. A press gang will not confront a party of equal or greater size unless the party is obviously weakened, drunk, etc. If the party loses, they will awaken aboard a ship at sea or in a military camp (depending on whether sailors or soldiers captured them), unarmed and at the mercy of their captors.

Priest encounters will usually be similar to a group of pilgrims (see Creating an NPC Party, below, for details), though the group encountered will not be as large as would be encountered in the wilderness. Generally, a single priest of 1st through 4th level will be encountered, accompanied by 1d4 of the faithful.

Shadow encounters in a town will be much like the same encounter underground; see the monster description for details.

Thief encounters will be with a group of 1d6 Thieves, generally disguised as ordinary townsmen or sometimes as beggars. One Thief in the group will be from 2nd to 4th level, with the others being 1st level only. They will seek to steal from the party, of course, unless watched very carefully.

Wizard encounters will involve a Magic-User of 4th through 7th level, accompanied by 1d4-1 apprentices of 1st level. The GM must decide on the temperament and mood of the wizard.

Creating An NPC Party

Adventurers

A party of NPC adventurers will usually consist of 4-8 characters, as follows: 1d3 Fighters, 1d2 Thieves, 1d2 Clerics, and 1d2-1 Magic-Users. Usually the characters will all be of similar levels; after deciding what average level the party should be, you may wish to make a few of the characters lower levels (to reflect the usual “replacements” brought in when some characters die).

The Game Master must choose the race(s) of the NPC adventurers to suit the region they are found in (or come from). Probably 80% or more of adventurers are Human, 10% are Dwarves, 6% are Halfling and the remaining 4% Elvish. If the NPC adventurer party is evil, the GM may choose to replace some party members with humanoid monsters such as orcs, hobgoblins, or gnolls.

The party may be rivals with the player characters, vying for the same treasures, or they may actually be enemies, evil marauders that the player characters must defeat. It is, of course, possible that the NPC adventurers are allied or otherwise friendly with the player characters, but this may make things too easy for the players.

Bandits, Brigands, and Highwaymen

A party of bandits will generally consist of 2d12 1st level Fighters and 1d6 1st level Thieves, led by a Fighter or Thief of 2nd to 5th level (1d4+1) or by one of each class (if there are 11 or more 1st level members total). In the wilderness, bandits will generally have horses or other steeds appropriate to the terrain (stolen, of course) as well as light armor, swords and bows or crossbows. Determine magic items as given below for the leaders only; rank-and-file members will not normally have magic items.

In their lair or hideout, a party of bandits will generally have type A treasure (with magic items omitted since they will have already been generated using the rules below).

Buccaneers and Pirates

The difference between buccaneers and pirates is largely a question of what they wish to be called; whatever you call them, they are waterborne equivalents of bandits, attacking other ships or raiding coastal towns for plunder.

A buccaneer party will consist of 3d8 1st level Fighters, led by a Fighter of 3rd to 6th level (1d4+2) and 1d3 Fighters of 2nd to 5th level. All will be experienced at handling ships, of course. They will be unarmored or armored only in leather, and will be armed with swords and bows or crossbows.

Seagoing pirates may appear in larger numbers, but the number of leader-types will be similar to that given above. Generate magic items for leaders only as described below. A shipload of pirates or buccaneers will have a type A treasure, with magic items omitted (since magic items will already have been rolled for the NPCs); the treasure may not be aboard the ship, however, as pirates often prefer to bury their treasures on islands. In such a case, the Captain or one of his mates will have a treasure map leading to the location of the treasure.

Merchants

Merchants must often transport their wares through wilderness areas. Roughly half of the time (50%), a land-bound merchant party will be led by a single wealthy merchant; other merchant parties will consist of 1d4+1 less wealthy merchants who have banded together for their own safety. There will be 2d4 wagons (but at least one per merchant) drawn by horses or mules. Each wagon is driven by a teamster who is a normal man, usually unarmored and armed with a dagger or shortsword. The caravan will employ 1d4+2 first-level Fighters and 1d4 second-level Fighters as guards.

If encountered at sea, a merchant party will generally consist of a single ship owned or rented by a single merchant. The ship will have a crew of 2d8+8 regular crewmen, who are normal men, unarmored and armed with clubs, daggers or shortswords; the Captain, First Mate, and other officers are taken from this number. Large ships may require larger crews. 1d4+2 first-level Fighters and 1d4 second-level Fighters will be aboard as guards, just as with a caravan.

Besides the valuable but undoubtedly bulky trade goods transported by the merchant caravan or ship, such a party will also have a type A treasure, with magic items omitted; it may be in one chest, or spread out among the wagons.

Nobles

A noble party will consist of a noble (of course), possibly accompanied by a spouse (also a noble, of course) and/or one or more children. Each adult noble will have at least one attendant (assistant, lady-in-waiting, etc.).

Lower-ranking nobles (such as barons) will have a single wagon or carriage, drawn by fine horses; higher-ranking nobles will have two or more wagons. The noble may be mounted on a warhorse, though he or she may choose to ride in a carriage part of the time. Each carriage or wagon will have a teamster, who in this case will be a 1st level Fighter in chainmail with a longsword. At least two mounted Fighters of 1st through 4th level will be with the noble as guards; again, higher ranking nobles will have more guards. Guards will generally be armed with longswords and possibly lances, armored in platemail, and their warhorses will usually be barded with chainmail. Determining the exact number of guards is left to the GM in this case. The normal chances for magic items apply, of course.

A noble will usually be traveling with a little spending money; a type A treasure should be rolled to represent this. In this case, do not omit the magic items, as nobles will generally be more wealthy than the average party of men.

Nobles are usually (70%) normal men; otherwise, roll 1d10: 1-6 indicates a Fighter, 7-8 indicates a Magic-User, 9 indicates a Cleric, and 10 indicates a Thief. (Clerical “nobles” are bishops, archbishops, and the like.) Roll 2d4-1 for the level of each “classed” noble.

Pilgrims

A party of pilgrims is on its way to (or from) a major religious locale or activity. Such a party will be led by a 1d4 Clerics of level 1-4 (roll for each).

The remainder of the party is rather random in nature; most pilgrim groups include 3d6 normal men (or women if the religion allows women to go on pilgrimages), 1d6 Fighters of level 1-4 (roll for each) with chainmail and longsword, and 1d4 Thieves of level 1-4 (each of whom may be a genuine devout person, or possibly just on the lam). There is also a 50% chance of a single Magic-User of level 1-4 being with the party.

Pilgrims usually travel light, carrying a single bag each and walking or riding mules or horses. The pilgrim party will most likely be bringing offerings of some sort to their destination; generate a type A treasure for this purpose. If magic items are indicated, they will most likely not be used by any of the NPCs as they have already been dedicated to the god or pantheon.

Magic Items for NPCs

NPCs will generally have magic items in proportion to their class and level; assume a 5% chance per level that any given Fighter, Thief or Cleric NPC will have a magic weapon or magic armor (roll for weapon and armor separately for each NPC). Regardless of level, a roll of 96-00 should be considered a failure. Magic-Users will have a Ring of Protection (roll the bonus as usual for the item) on a roll of 4% per level, and a magic dagger or walking staff on a roll of 3% per level.

In addition, assume a 2% per level chance that any given character will have a potion, and 3% per level that a Cleric or Magic-User will have a scroll of some sort.

Finally, add up the levels of all members of the party, and use this number as a percentage chance that a Miscellaneous Magic item will be found among them. If the roll is made, divide the number by two and roll again; if the second roll is made, two such items are found. If the party has more than 3 members, you might wish to divide the number in half again and roll for a third such item. Assign the Miscellaneous Magic item or items to whichever party members seem most appropriate, or roll randomly if you can't decide.

Demi-Human Parties

It is assumed above that NPC parties will be Human, or predominantly so; but the Game Master may choose to present parties of Elves, Dwarves, or Halflings from time to time. In general, a party of demi-humans will be homogeneous…. an Elf party would consist of all Elves, for instance. If encountered in the territory of another race, the demi-human party might include a guide hired to lead them to their destination. For example, the Elf party mentioned above might hire a Human guide to help them when traveling through a Human country.

The Game Master may simply use the figures given above when generating such parties. One thing that the GM must decide is whether or not the “normal men” rules apply to demi-humans… are there “normal elves” for instance? This decision is left to the GM. If there are such characters, they will have the same racial abilities as others of their race, but will fight with an Attack Bonus of +0 just as normal men do. If there are no such characters in the campaign world, then simply substitute 1st level Fighters for the normal men listed above.

Dealing with Players

Character Creation Options

The standard character creation rules call for rolling 3d6 for each Ability Score in order. Players may complain that they can't create the sort of characters they want to play. Here are several options you may choose from if you wish to make things easier for your players. Note that the players must not be allowed to demand these options; it's purely the decision of the Game Master.

Point Swapping: Allow the player to “move” points from one Ability Score to another, at a rate of -2 to one score for each +1 added to the other. The maximum score is still 18 (or the racial maximum if lower), and the player should not be allowed to lower any score below 9.

Score Swapping: Let the player exchange any two Ability Scores, once per character.

The Full Shuffle: Let the player arrange the six Ability Score values as he or she wishes. This allows the most customization for the player, but on the other hand you may find that all player characters in your campaign begin to look very much alike. It's not uncommon for players to “dump” the lowest statistic in Charisma, for instance.

Hopeless Characters

Sometimes a player will look at the six scores rolled, and declare the character “hopeless.” The Game Master should always allow the player to scrap a character with less than 9 in the first four scores (since all four classes would be unavailable to that character). However, you as the Game Master might choose to allow the player to reroll a character with scores that are overall below average even if the character isn't as “hopeless” as this.

Here's a suggestion: Sum up the Ability Score bonuses or penalties that apply to the character. If the total is negative, consider the character below average, and allow the player to scratch the entire set of scores and reroll. If the total is zero, the character is “average,” and the player probably should go ahead and play the character as rolled. Obviously, if the total is greater than zero, the character should be played as rolled.

As an alternative, a player who rolls a set of ability scores where the total of all the bonuses and penalties is negative may be allowed to "flip" the scores by subtracting all the scores (not just the "bad" ones) from 21. This makes a 3 into an 18, for example, and will result in a total of bonuses and penalties that is positive if the total was previously negative.

Acquisition of Spells

Clerics have an obvious advantage over Magic-Users, in that, in theory, they have access to any spell of any level which they can cast. However, note that Clerics are limited in their spell selection based on their deity, faith or ethos; for instance, a Cleric of the goddess of healing should not be surprised that his or her deity refuses to grant reversed healing spells. If a Cleric prays for a spell that is not allowed, the Game Master may choose to grant the character a different spell, or optionally (if the deity is angered) no spell at all for that “slot.”

Magic-Users begin play knowing two spells, read magic plus one other (unless the GM grants more starting spells). Each time the character gains a level, he or she gains the ability to cast more spells; in addition, every other level the Magic-User gains access to the next higher level spells (until all levels are available). However, gaining the ability to cast these spells does not necessarily mean the Magic-User instantly learns new spells.

Magic-Users may learn spells by being taught by another Magic-User, or by studying another Magic-User's spellbook. If being taught, a spell can be learned in a single day; researching another Magic-User's spellbook takes one day per spell level. In either case, the spell learned must be transcribed into the Magic-User's own spellbook, at a cost of 500 gp per spell level transcribed.

A Magic-User may add a new spell of any level he or she may cast at any point; however, spells of higher levels may not be learned or added to the Magic-User's spellbook. The Magic-User must find a teacher or acquire a reference work (such as another Magic-User's spellbook) in order to learn new spells, and the cost of such is in addition to the costs given above. Often a Magic-User will maintain a relationship with his or her original master, who will teach the character new spells either for free or in return for services. Sometimes two Magic-Users will agree to exchange known spells. In many cases the only option available to a Magic-User will be to pay another Magic-User (often an NPC) anywhere from 100 gp to 1000 gp per spell level in return for such training.

Magic-Users may also create entirely new spells (or alter existing spells); see the Magic Research rules, below, for details.

Weapon and Armor Restrictions

Several races and classes have weapon and/or armor restrictions applied to them. What happens when a player declares that his or her character is going to use a prohibited weapon or wear prohibited armor?

Clerics: The prohibition against edged weapons is a matter of faith for Clerics. Therefore, if a Cleric uses a prohibited weapon, he or she immediately loses access to his or her spells as well as the power to Turn the Undead. A higher-level NPC Cleric of the same faith must assign some quest to the miscreant which must be completed in order for the fallen Cleric to atone and regain his or her powers. If unrepentant, the character is changed permanently from a Cleric to a Fighter. Refigure the character's level, applying the current XP total to the Fighter table to determine this. Hit points and attack bonus remain the same; change the attack bonus only after a new level is gained as a Fighter, and roll Fighter hit dice as normal when levels are gained.

Magic-Users: These characters are simply untrained in any weapon other than those normally allowed to them, and should suffer a -5 attack penalty when using any prohibited weapon. A Magic-User in armor can't cast spells at all; any such attempt fails, and the spell is lost.

Thieves: Wearing armor heavier, more restrictive and/or noisier than leather armor prevents the use of any Thief ability, including the Sneak Attack ability. Thieves may choose to wear such armor, but this only makes them a poor excuse for a Fighter.

Dwarves and Halflings: These characters are prohibited from using large weapons, mainly due to their small stature and relatively low weight. It's hard to swing a weapon when the weapon is trying to swing you. If such a character tries to use a prohibited weapon, the Game Master may either apply a -5 attack penalty based on the difficulty of using the weapon, or alternately declare the attempt unsuccessful, at his or her option.

Judging Wishes

Wishes are one of the most potentially unbalancing things in the game. With a carefully worded wish, a player character can make sweeping, dramatic changes in the game world, possibly even rewriting history. Before allowing the player characters in your game access to even one wish, think about how you will deal with it.

Wishes are granted by a variety of beings. Even when a wish comes from a device (a ring or a sword, for instance), some extradimensional being, god or devil or whatever, has placed that wish in the device. A wish will tend to further the goals of the granting being; if the granter is an evil efreeti, for instance, it will attempt to twist the meaning or intent of the wish so that it does not really accomplish what the player character wants. On the other hand, if the granter is one of the good powers, it will grant the wish as intended so long at the player character isn't being greedy or spiteful.

Game balance is the main issue that must be considered. Using a wish to heal the entire party, teleport everyone without error to a distant location, or to avoid or redo a catastrophic battle, is reasonable. A wish that a character be restored to life and health is reasonable, but a wish that not only restores but also improves the character is not.

In general, a wish is granted with at least literal accuracy… the words of the wish must be fulfilled. The exception is wishes that are unreasonable for game balance purposes; they are still at least literally interpreted, but may be only partially granted. In the last example above, for instance, the granting power would likely restore the character to life and health but ignore the “improvements” wished for.

Optional Rules

Death and Dying

The rules state that, at zero hit points, the character is dead. If this is too harsh for you, here are several approaches to changing the situation:

Raise Dead: The first approach doesn't change the rules a bit. Arrange matters so that characters killed in an adventure can be easily raised (but at a substantial cost). This not only “deals” with the mortality issue, it also soaks up excess treasure, preventing the player characters from becoming too rich to be interested in adventuring. It also tends to reward the cautious (since they get to keep their gold more often).

What if the characters don't have enough money when they die to afford to be raised? Allow the local religious establishment to raise dead adventurers in return for their indenture… that is, the adventurers, upon being restored to life, owe the church or temple the money it would have cost to be raised, or an equivalent service. Thus, the local religious leaders would have a ready pool of adventurers to undertake dangerous missions for them.

But the adventurer(s) are dead… how can they agree to the indenture? There are two options: the priests can use speak with dead to attain agreement, or the adventurers can sign an agreement with the church before leaving on the potentially dangerous adventure. The latter might even be considered a standard procedure in some places.

Save vs. Death: The first actual rule alteration is to allow characters reduced to zero hit points to save vs. Death Ray to avoid death. If the save is failed, the character is immediately dead, just as in the normal rules. If the save is made, the character remains alive for 2d10 rounds; if the character's wounds are bound (or he or she receives healing magic) within this time frame, death is averted. The character remains unconscious for the full 2d10 rounds rolled, either dying if left untreated or awakening if his or her wounds are bound.

Binding the wounds of the dying character stabilizes him or her at zero hit points. Non-magical healing will require a full week to restore the first hit point; after this, healing proceeds at the normal rate.

Magical healing will restore the character to whatever total is rolled on the healing die roll (up to the usual maximum of course).

Note that any spellcaster reduced to zero hit points who subsequently survives loses all remaining prepared spells.

This rule might be combined with the suggestions under Raise Dead, above.

Negative Hit Points: Instead of stopping at zero hit points, keep track of the current negative figure. At the end of each round after he or she falls, the character loses an additional hit point. If a total of -10 is reached, the character is dead. Before this point is reached, the character may have his or her wounds bound and/or receive magical healing, which will stabilize the character. The injured character may not move more than a few feet without help, nor fight, nor cast spells, until his or her hit points are again greater than zero. This rule should not be combined with the Save vs. Death option.

Just as with the Save vs. Death rule, spellcasters who survive being reduced to zero or negative hit points lose all currently prepared spells.

As a further option, the GM may choose to use a negative number equal to the character's Constitution score rather than a straight -10.

“Save or Die” Poison

Poisons, as described in the Encounter and Monster sections, kill characters instantly. Game Masters may find this makes the mortality rate of player characters a bit too high. On the other hand, poisons shouldbe scary. Here's an optional rule which may make things a bit easier without entirely removing the fear from poison:

Where a “save or die” poison is indicated, the victim must make a save vs. Poison or suffer 1d6 damage per round for 6 rounds, starting the round following the exposure to the poison; this is an average of 21 points of damage, but even a first level character might survive with a combination of luck and healing magic. The GM may create poisons which vary from these figures, of course. If the Negative Hit Points optional rule is being used, it is suggested to increase the poison duration to 10 rounds (an average 35 points).

Awarding Experience Points for Treasure Gained

style="position: absolute; top: 0in; left: 0in" The Game Master may also assign experience points for treasure gained, at a rate of 1 GP = 1 XP. This is optional; GMs wishing to advance their players to higher levels more quickly may choose to do this, while those preferring a more leisurely pace should omit it. If experience is awarded for treasure, it should be awarded only for treasure acquired and returned to a place of safety. Alternately, the GM may require treasure to be spent on training in order to count it for experience. This is a highly effective way to remove excess treasure from the campaign.

Ability Rolls

There will be times when a player character tries to do something in the game that seems to have no rule covering it. In some of those cases, the only attribute the PC has that seems appropriate may be an Ability Score. Here is a suggested method for making rolls against Ability Scores that still gives better odds to higher level characters:

The player rolls 1d20 and adds his or her Ability Bonus for the score the GM thinks is most appropriate, as well as any situational bonus or penalty the GM assigns. Consult the following table. If the total rolled is equal to or higher than the given Target number, the roll is a success.

Level Target
NM or 1 17
2-3 16
4-5 15
6-7 14
8-9 13
10-11 12
12-13 11
14-15 10
16-17 9
18-19 8
20 7

Preparing Spells from Memory

Sometimes a Magic-User will want to prepare spells, but his or her spellbook may be unavailable; this includes when the book has been destroyed or stolen as well as times when the Magic-User has been captured or trapped.

A Magic-User can always prepare read magic from memory. Other spells require an Intelligence ability roll, as described above, with the spell level as a penalty on the die roll.

Failure exhausts the spell slot being prepared, just as if it had been successfully prepared and then cast; so if a 5th level Magic-User attempts to prepare fireball from memory, and fails, he or she will have no 3rd level spells for the day.

Thief Abilities

Some players of Thieves may wish to have more control over their Thief abilities. If you study the Thief Abilities table, you'll discover its secret: from levels 2-9, the Thief improves 30 percentiles (total) each level; from levels 10-15, 20 percentiles; and from level 16 on, 10 percentiles. If you wish to allow Thief customization, simply let the player allocate these points as he or she wishes rather than following the table. Allow no more than 10 percentiles to be added to any single Thief ability per level gain. Note also that no Thief ability may be raised above 99 percent.

Magical Research

General Rules for Research

At some point a Magic-User or Cleric may wish to start creating magic items or inventing spells. This is termed magical research. For any research, Magic-User must have a tower or laboratory, while a Cleric requires a properly consecrated temple or church of his or her faith. In addition, there will be a cost for the creation of each item, a minimum time required to create it, and a given chance of success. If the roll fails, generally the time and money are wasted and the procedure must be started again from the beginning; however, consult the detailed rules below for exceptions.

In almost all cases, the Game Master should make this roll in secret. There are many situations where the character (or the player) should not know whether the roll has actually failed, or whether the GM has decided the research is impossible for the character. The GM may decide to tell the player that the research is impossible if the roll succeeds; if the roll is a failure, that is all the player should be told.

In general, Clerics may only create magic items reproducing the effects of Clerical spells; Clerics may also make enchanted weapons and armor, even those sorts which they may not use themselves (since they may be creating weapons or armor for other followers of their faith). Magic-Users may create any sort of magic item except for those reproducing Clerical spells for which no equivalent Magic-User spell exists.

Time spent doing magical research must be eight-hour workdays with interruptions lasting no more than two days. Longer interruptions result in automatic failure of the project.

The GM may, if he or she so desires, grant Experience Points to characters who successfully complete magical research. It is suggested that the rate of such awards be 1 XP per 10 gp spent on the research. This award may be granted for all research, or only for creation of magic items, or not at all if the GM prefers to emphasize adventuring for advancement purposes.

Spell Research

Researching new spells is the most common type of magical research. A Magic-User may research a standard spell, removing the need for a teacher or reference; alternately, a Cleric or Magic-User may research an entirely new spell. Of course, no character may invent or research a spell of a level higher than he or she can cast.

If the character is inventing a spell outright, the GM must determine the spell's level and judge whether or not the spell is possible “as is.” The GM does not have to tell the player whether the spell is possible, and in fact this may be preferable.

The cost to research a spell is 1,000 gp per spell level for “standard” spells, or 2,000 gp per spell level for newly invented spells; in either case, one week is required per spell level to complete the research. The chance of success is 25%, plus 5% per level of the character, minus 10% per level of the spell; the maximum chance of success is 95%.

If the research roll is successful, the character may add the spell to his or her spellbook (if a Magic-User) or may subsequently pray for the spell (if a Cleric). On a failure, the money and time are spent to no avail. Clerics of the same deity, faith or ethos may teach each other the prayers required to access new spells; this takes one hour per spell level. The procedure to exchange spells with other Magic-Users has already been explained (under Acquisition of Spells, above).

As mentioned above, the GM may decide that a proposed new spell is not “correct” for his or her campaign; too powerful, too low in level, etc. Rather than tell the player this, there are two strategies that may be used.

First, the Game Master may decide to revise the spell. If the roll is a success, the GM then presents the player with a revised writeup of the spell, adjusted however the GM feels necessary for game balance purposes.

The alternative, more appropriate when the GM believes the spell should be higher level than the player character can cast, is to make the roll anyway. If the roll fails, that is all the player needs to know; but if it succeeds, the GM should then show the player the revised version of the spell and explain that the character may try again when he or she attains a high enough level to cast it. In this case, the GM may allow the character to reduce either the time or the cost by half when the research is attempted again at the higher level.

Magic Item Research

Any character who wishes to create magical items must know all (if any) spells to be imbued in the item. Items that produce effects not matching any known spell may require additional research (to devise the unknown spell) if the GM so desires.

Some magic items require one or more special components that cannot usually be bought. Special components can only be used once on such a project. For example, the GM might require the skin of a displacer to create a cloak of displacement, or red dragon saliva to create a wand of fireballs. Note that there are specific rules for components under Other Magic Items, below.

Special component requirements are entirely at the option of the Game Master, and are usually employed to slow the creation of powerful magic items that might tend to unbalance the campaign. It's also a good way to lead the spellcaster (and his party) into dangerous adventures.

Chance of Success

Unless given differently below, the base chance of success creating a magic item is 15% plus 5% per level of the spellcaster, plus the spellcaster's full Intelligence (if a Magic-User) or Wisdom (if a Cleric). Thus, a 9th level spellcaster with a 15 Prime Requisite has a base chance of 75%.

Spell Scrolls

A spellcaster may create a scroll containing any spell he or she has access to (for a Magic-User, spells in his or her spellbook; for a Cleric, any spell the character might successfully pray for). The cost is 500 gp per spell level, and the time required is 1 day per spell level.

Reduce the chance of success based on the level of the spell being inscribed, at a rate of -10% per level.

If the roll fails, the enchantment of the scroll has failed; however, if the caster tries again to inscribe the same spell, either the cost or the time is reduced by half (at the character's option).

Other Single-Use Items

Scrolls (other than spell scrolls), potions, and a few other items (such as the rod of cancellation) are single-use items. These items may be created by Magic-Users or Clerics of the 7th level or higher.

The chance of success is as given for scrolls, above, when the item being created reproduces a known spell (or when the GM decides a spell must be created, as described above). For other types of items, the GM should assign a spell level as he or she sees fit, and the cost and time required is doubled (making up for the spell research or knowledge required for spell-reproducing items). The time required is one week plus one day per spell level (or equivalent), and the cost to enchant the item is 50 gp per spell level, per day.

Potions are a special case; the character creating a potion may create a large batch, consisting of several doses, which may be bottled in separate vials or combined in a larger flask. For each additional dose created at the same time, reduce the chance of success by 5% and increase the time required by one day. Note that increasing the time required will directly increase the cost. If the roll to create the item fails, the entire batch is spoiled.

Permanent Magic Items

Creating permanent magic items (rings, weapons, wands, staves, and most miscellaneous magic items) requires a Magic-User or Cleric of the 9th level or higher.

When enchanting an item with multiple abilities, each ability of the item requires a separate roll for success; the first failed roll ends the enchantment process. Such an item will still perform the powers or effects already successfully enchanted into it, but no further enchantment is possible.

Permanent magic items, including weapons (described in detail below), must be created from high-quality items. The cost of such items will generally be ten times the normal cost for such an item.

Enchanting Weapons

The base cost of enchanting a weapon or armor is 1,000 gp per point of bonus. For weapons with two bonuses, divide the larger bonus in half (don't round) and add the smaller bonus; thus, a sword +1, +3 vs. dragons would cost 2,500 gp to enchant. Enchanting a weapon takes one week plus two days per point of bonus; thus, the sword described would require twelve days to enchant.

Reduce the chance of success by 10% times the bonus; so, a sword +1 would reduce the base chance 10%, while the sword +1, +3 vs. dragons described above would reduce the base chance 25%. Further, the chance of success may be increased 25% by doubling the cost and time required (this decision must be announced before the roll is made).

For weapons having additional powers, combine the rules above with the rules for creating permanent items. All enchantments must be applied in a single enchantment “session.”

Other Magic Items

Magic items can have several features. Each feature added to a magic item increases the cost and the time required, and decreases the chance of success. The features are as follows:

Creates a spell or spell-like effect: This is the basic feature of all non-weapon magic items. The base cost of this enchantment is 500 gp per spell level; time required is five days plus two days per level. If the magic item has multiple spell or spell-like effects, add the cost and time figures together. The chance of success is reduced 5% per spell level.

Has multiple charges: This includes, of course, wands and staffs, but several other magic items would also have charges. Each spell or spell-like effect normally has a separate pool of charges (but see next). The table below shows the various maximum charge levels and the associated cost, time and chance adjustments:

Charge Level Cost per Charge Charges per Day Chance
2-3 +150 gp 1 - 5%
4-7 +125 gp 2 - 10%
8-20 +100 gp 3 - 20%
21-30 +75 gp 4 - 30%

When using the table above, don't count the first charge for cost or time purposes. Note that each separate pool of charges in the item must be figured separately.

Item can be recharged: Figure the additional cost and time, and the penalty to the chance of success, for rechargeable items as being exactly twice the figures from the table above; so, creating a rechargeable item with 3 charges costs 600 gp more rather than 300 gp more, and takes two days per charge (or four extra days); the chance of success is lowered 10% rather than 5%.

Item recharges itself: Creating a self-recharging item is expensive; apply the following adjustments to the charge cost, time and chance for items that recharge automatically. Note that self-recharging items are never “rechargeable” in that they may not be recharged other than by themselves.

Charging Rate Cost Time Chance
1 per day x 3 x 2 - 10%
All per day x 5 x 3 - 30%
All per week x 4 x 2 - 20%

Charges are generic: This means that all the effects of the item draw power from the same pool of charges; most Magic-User staffs are in this category. Items with generic charges are automatically rechargeable; don't apply the normal adjustments for this feature. Instead, combine the normal costs for the charge pools of each effect (which must all have the same number of charges), and then divide the charge cost, time and chance adjustments by two. Thus, two effects sharing one pool costs the same as a single effect with a single pool.

Item may be used by any class: By default, magic items may only be used by the class that created them; so a wand of fireballs is normally usable only by Magic-Users, or a staff of healing only by Clerics. This feature allows the item to be used by any class of character, and involves assigning simple command words and gestures to the item. Adding this feature costs 1,000 gp per effect. Note that all the item's effects do not have to be covered; it is possible to create an item where some effects may be used by any class, but other effects may only be used by the creator's class.

Item operates continuously or automatically: This feature supersedes both the charges and item use features. The item works whenever properly worn, or activates automatically when required. A ring of fire resistance is a good example; also, the ring of invisibility is in this category. Adding this feature multiplies the final cost and time figures by five and applies a 40% penalty to the chance of success.

Each feature above applied to a magic item will require a valuable, rare and/or magical material to support the enchantment. For example, a wand of fireballs has a spell effect that is powered by charges; these are two relatively ordinary features, so the Magic-User creating the item proposes a rare wood for the shaft and a 1,000 gp value ruby for the tip. The GM may, of course, require something more rare or valuable if the magic item is particularly powerful.

The base cost of a spell effect feature can be reduced by 25% by applying limits to the ability. For example, a ring of charm dryad is an example of limited charm person spell effect, which would qualify for the deduction. This does not affect the chance of success or the time required.

Weapons which are to be enchanted with additional powers other than the normal bonus require combining the standard weapon enchantment rules with the rules given above. Perform the weapon enchantment first; if it is successful, then the character enchanting the weapon must immediately (within two days, as previously explained) begin the spell or spell-like power enchantment process. Failure of the second procedure does not spoil the weapon enchantment.

Cursed Items

Some cursed items, such as cursed scrolls, are created that way specifically by the spellcaster. The difficulty of creating such an item is roughly the same as the difficulty of creating a spell scroll of bestow curse.

Other cursed magic items may be the result of a failed attempt to create a useful item. The GM must decide whether or not a failed research project will actually create a cursed item.

Creating a Dungeon Adventure

1. Think About Why

When creating a dungeon, the first question you must answer is: Why will your player characters risk going into this dangerous dungeon full of monsters and traps?

Here are some possible scenarios:

To Explore the Unknown: This is common in pulp fiction. One or more of the player characters has heard of some ancient site, and wishes to explore purely for knowledge. Possibly some of the other player characters are involved for other reasons.

To Battle An Evil Incursion: Goblins are raiding farms in the area, and the Baron has offered a reward for stopping the raids; the player characters are happy to help.

To Rescue A Kidnapped Victim: Some friend of the player characters has been kidnapped, and they must sneak into or storm the villain's tower/cave/dungeon to rescue the victim. Or, perhaps, the victim is the son or daughter of the local Baron or a wealthy merchant who offers a reward for the safe return of his or her offspring.

To Fulfill A Quest: The local church, to whom the player characters owe a favor, would like an ancient relic recovered from a lost mountain fortress, and the High Priest asks them to look into it; or some similar task might be assigned, depending on who the player characters owe a favor.

To Get Loot: This is a surprisingly common scenario (well, perhaps not so surprising). The dungeon is rumored to contain a hidden treasure of great value, and the first characters to find it will be rich! Of course, the treasure might not be that huge, and might be guarded by any number of horrific monsters…

To Escape Confinement: The player characters have been captured by an enemy, and find themselves incarcerated without their weapons, armor, or equipment. This scenario must be used with care, as the GM must not be seen to be “railroading” the characters into the adventure.

There are many other possible scenarios, and each has many variations. Knowing the answer to this question will make the next questions easier to answer.

2. What Kind Of Setting Is It?

Is the dungeon beneath a ruined fortress, or an ancient wizard's tower? Or perhaps it's a natural cave, which has been expanded by kobolds… or the tomb of an ancient barbarian warlord, guarded by undead monsters… there are many possibilities.

3. Choose Special Monsters

Now you know why the player characters want to go there (or why they will, when they learn of the dungeon), and you know what sort of place it is. Next, decide what special monsters you will place within. For instance, the natural cave expanded by kobolds contains kobolds, obviously, while the warlord's tomb contains some undead, zombies and skeletons perhaps.

4. Draw The Dungeon Map

Dungeon maps can be drawn on graph paper in pencil, or created on the computer with any of a broad variety of dungeon-drawing programs. (If you like the design of the maps in the official Basic Fantasy RPG adventure modules, be sure to visit www.basicfantasy.org and try out our map designer, MapMatic +2.) When creating a dungeon for personal use, there is certainly no good reason not to use pencil and paper. Below is an example of a hand-drawn dungeon map, with the various symbols noted:

5. Stock The Dungeon

“Stocking” the dungeon refers to assigning contents to each room. There are several possibilities; a room might contain a monster (which might or might not have treasure), a trap (which might guard a treasure, or might not), an “unguarded” treasure, a “special” (something other than a monster, trap, or treasure; often a puzzle of some sort), or be “empty.”

The GM may choose the contents of any room, or may roll on the table below:

d% Contents
01-16 Empty
17-20 Unguarded Treasure
21-60 Monster
61-84 Monster with Treasure
85-88 Special
89-96 Trap
97-00 Trap with Treasure

An unguarded treasure will generally be hidden (such as in a secret room, inside an unusual container, etc.) or protected by a trap (a poison needle in the lock of a chest, or a poison gas canister that explodes if the container is opened, or something similar); such a treasure might even be hidden and trapped! Again, some sort of saving throw should be allowed if a trap is used. It's not a bad idea to hide a treasure so well that the player characters are unlikely to find it; don't be concerned if they don't. If you give away the location of all your unguarded treasures, your players will not appreciate it properly when they manage to find one by cleverness or luck.

A monster might be selected by the GM or rolled on the random encounter tables. It's traditional that the first level (below ground) contains monsters of 1 hit die or less, the second level contains monsters of around 2 hit dice, and so on, but the GM may choose to arrange his or her dungeon in any way desired.

A monster with treasure might indicate a lair, or it might be a group of monsters carrying loot, possibly camping for some reason before moving on.

A trap is, obviously, some sort of device intended to harm the player characters, including such things as pendulum blades, hidden pits, spear-chucking devices, and so forth. A trap with treasure is such a trap protecting a treasure, which might be in the room beyond the trap or actually within it (such as in a pit). See the Traps section, below, for more information.

A special might be a puzzle of some sort, such as a door that can only be opened by a combination (hidden elsewhere in the dungeon); or perhaps an oracle that answers questions about the dungeon (but possibly it lies). The classic “magic fountain” that randomly changes the ability scores of the drinker is another possibility; if this is done, some sort of limit should be imposed (such as, the device only affects a given creature once, or the device causes harm more often than it gives aid) to prevent abuse. In general, a “special” room is any room containing something that either interests or obstructs the player characters but is not a monster, trap, or unguarded treasure.

Empty rooms contain no monsters, traps, unguarded treasures, or specials. This does not mean that they are truly “empty;” a room might contain a fireplace, upholstered chairs, side tables, torch sconces, and curtains, and still be considered empty. Hide a treasure in a secret drawer in a side table, and it becomes an unguarded treasure room; in other words, to be empty there has to be basically nothing of serious interest to the player characters in the room.

6. Finishing Touches

The GM may wish to create one or more custom wandering monster tables for the dungeon; monster patrols, if any, may need to be described; and possibly some locations may have unusual sounds, smells, graffiti, etc. which need to be noted. Don't spend too much time on this, though.

Remember, if you only detail the “interesting” things, your players will begin to guess what might be in a room. Some extra description will help make things uncertain for the players. For instance, a room with an unguarded treasure:

Game Master: This room contains a chest, centered against the far wall.

Player 1: We look for monsters, and if we don't see any, the thief will check the chest for traps.

Kind of boring, right? This might be better:

Game Master: In this room you see a comfortable-looking upholstered chair, a side table and a foot stool. Two burned-out torches are held by sconces on each wall.

Player 1: If we don't see any monsters, the thief will check the table and the footstool for traps and see if anything is hidden inside them, while the rest of us check for secret doors… one of those sconces might open one.

A little extra detail can add a lot to the adventure.

Traps

Some suggestions of typical traps are listed below, to assist the GM. Deadlier traps can be created by combining simple traps, by making their effects harder to avoid, or by making them capable of dealing more damage.

Traps are not necessarily reliable; the GM may choose to make a roll of some sort for each potential victim until the trap is sprung (say, 1-2 on 1d6). Or, a trap door might not open until a given weight is placed on it, so that a lightly loaded thief might cross without difficulty, only to see his heavily armored warrior ally fall victim to it.

Alarm: Everyone within a 30' radius must save vs Spells or be deafened for 1d8 turns by the loud noise. The GM should check immediately for wandering monsters, which, if indicated, will arrive in 2d10 rounds.

Arrow Trap: A hidden, mounted crossbow attacks at AB +1, doing 1d6+1 points of damage on a successful hit.

Chute: These are usually covered with a hidden trap door. The triggering character must save vs. Death Ray (with Dexterity bonus added) or tumble down to lower level of the dungeon. Chutes usually do little or no damage to the victim.

Falling stones or bricks: Rocks fall from the ceiling. The triggering character must save vs. Paralysis or Petrify (with Dexterity bonus added) or take 1d10 points of damage.

Flashing Light: With a loud snap, a bright light goes off in the face of the character that triggered the trap. That character, and anyone else looking directly at it, must save vs. Spells or be blinded for 1d8 turns.

Monster-Attracting Spray: A strong-smelling but harmless liquid is sprayed on the triggering character. The smell attracts predatory creatures, doubling the chances of wandering monsters for 1d6 hours or until washed off.

Oil Slick: Oil is sprayed onto the floor of the room. Anyone trying to walk through the oil must save vs Death Ray (with Dexterity bonus added) or fall prone. Oil is highly flammable and may be ignited by torches or other flame sources held by characters who slip and fall into it.

Pit Trap: Usually hidden with a breakable cover, trap door, or illusion. The victim must save vs Death Ray (with Dexterity bonus added) or fall into the pit, taking damage according to the distance fallen (see "Falling Damage"). A pit trap can be made deadlier by placing spikes, acid, or dangerous creatures at the bottom, or partly filling it with water to represent a drowning hazard.

Poison Dart Trap: A spring-loaded dart launcher attacks at AB +1 for 1d4 points of damage, and the victim must save vs. Poison or die.

Poison Gas: Gas emerges from vents to fill the room. All within the affected area must save vs. Poison or die. Poison gases are sometimes highly flammable and may be ignited by torches or other flame sources, doing perhaps 1d6 points of damage to each character in the area of effect (with a save vs. Dragon Breath allowed to avoid the damage).

Poison Needle Trap: A tiny, spring-loaded needle pops out of a keyhole or other small aperture and injects poison into the finger of the character who triggered the trap (most likely, a Thief trying to pick the lock), who must save vs. Poison or die.

Portcullis: A falling gate blocks the passage. The character who triggered the trap must save vs Death Ray or take 3d6 points of damage.

Rolling Boulder Trap: A spherical or cylindrical rock rolls down a slanting corridor. Anyone in its path must save vs. Death Ray (with Dexterity bonus added) or take 2d6 points of damage. Alternately, if the corridor has no other place for the character to escape to (that is, no room for the character to step out of the path of the rock), it may be necessary to outrun the rock to avoid the damage.

Blade Trap: A blade or spear drops down from the ceiling or pops out of the wall and attacks at AB +1 for 1d8 points of damage. Particularly large blades might attack everyone along a 10' or 20' line.

Triggered Spell: When activated, a spell of the GM's choice is cast, targeting or centered on the character who triggered it. Popular choices include curses, illusions, or a wall of fire.

Designing a Wilderness Adventure

1. Think About Why

This is much the same task as was described above. The player characters may enter a particular area looking for a town to resupply from, a church or temple to provide healing services, or for many other reasons. Once in the area, the Game Master can make the player characters aware of adventuring opportunities in the area, by means of rumors, posted bounties (such as for raiding humanoids), quests offered by local clergy, and so forth.

2. What Kind Of Setting Is It?

Decide whether the area is deep in the wilderness, or in more inhabited territories, what sort of climate will be found there, how many towns, and of what size, are present, and so on.

You may choose to design a new territory based on the goals of the player characters in your campaign. For example, if the player characters decide to seek their fortunes in the richest city in the world, you could decide where this is and begin to describe it by providing rumors of its wealth and splendor told by far-wandering merchants. If these descriptions intrigue the characters and they travel toward the city, you will have time to decide what terrain – and dangers – lie in their path.

On the other hand, your setting should make sense, which will help players make meaningful choices when traveling. For example, areas under human control will be settled, with signs of civilization such as cleared land for agriculture, roads, strongholds, etc. Areas dominated by humanoid monsters, or which are being raided by wandering humanoids, will be battle-scarred and will not have food or other goods available. A valley that was settled many years ago but abandoned after a dragon attacked could contain ruined buildings, their walls likely still bearing the marks of flame and claw, and fields grown high with saplings.

3. Draw An Area Map

Now it's time to draw the area map. Some Game Masters prefer to draw maps freehand, while others like to use hex or graph paper; of course, programs are available to create maps on a computer as well. It is a good idea to provide a scale for the map, which can be whatever best fits the map and the area you want to depict. A scale of 18 miles per square or hex is a good choice for a large-scale map, as this is the distance that a group of humans can cover in a day in clear terrain (see Wilderness Movement Rates), which makes it easy to determine travel times.

Rivers and coastline, hills and mountains, forests and plains must be clear on the map. All of these areas should have an appropriate climate: for example, the windward side of a mountain range will usually receive a great deal of rain, while the other side will be dry. You may choose to create an area with abnormal weather for its location, such as a sandy desert in the midst of a rain forest, but this should be unusual, a tip to observant players that strange magic is involved.

Go ahead and place any interesting sites such as towns, ruins, and significant monster lairs. Remember, in most cases your party of adventurers will need some base of operations, be it a city, town, village, or border fortress.

4. Detail Interesting Sites And People

Describe at least the base town, and the dungeon you expect the party to visit first. Also detail any set or placed encounters you laid out in the step above. There is lots of room for creativity here: a distant, unfamiliar town may have different laws, traditions, or currency. You should also describe key NPCs and their connections to each other. NPCs have their own goals and plans, which may or may not involve the PCs, and the actions of player characters toward one person will often influence how others treat them. Don't go overboard trying to detail every single place on the map… leave some room for expansion later, after you have a feel for your players and their characters.

5. Create Encounter Tables

When designing a wilderness area, one touch that will really set it apart is a custom encounter table. Choose those monsters that seem most appropriate to the area, using the standard encounter tables as a guide. If you have placed humanoid lairs or encampments, you may wish to include their patrols on the custom table.

Another alternative is to roll six or eight or ten random encounters using the “generic” encounter table for the relevant terrain type, and use that list as your random encounter table for the area. When doing this, you probably should re-roll duplicates.

Strongholds

Many player characters, upon reaching higher levels, choose to settle down and build a stronghold. Generally this is allowed when a character reaches 9th level or higher. The player character must obtain land on which to build; in some lands, frontier territory may be made available to any freeman (or freewoman) who can tame it; in others, land may be available for someone with enough gold; while in other cases the character will need to petition the local Count, Duke or King for a land grant.

Usually, Fighters build castles, Magic-Users build towers, Clerics build temples and Thieves build guildhouses, but this is not always so. Any character who builds a stronghold suitable to his or her class will attract 1st level followers of the same class as follows:

Class Number of Followers
Fighter 3d6
Magic-User 1d8
Cleric 2d8
Thief 2d6

These followers will assist the character, but will not go on adventures away from the stronghold in most cases (especially dangerous dungeon adventures). They live from the income generated by the stronghold. The primary sources of this income are taxes on peasants for castles, fees for magical services and students' tuition for towers, tithing from the faithful for temples, and criminal activities for guildhouses. A stronghold must have 200 square feet of living space for each follower, as well as quarters for guests, stables for horses, and so on.

A player who wants to build a stronghold should draw its floor plan. Each story is usually 10' tall. The construction costs for the stronghold are determined by the square footage of its walls, floors and roofs, the materials used, and the thickness of the walls.

Make sure not to double-count corners on walls that are 5' thick or thicker – count the length of only one face. When determining wall length for round walls and towers, approximate pi by 3, since the inner face of the wall has a shorter circumference. The table below gives costs in gp for each 10’ square section of wall. The number by the material is its hardness, which is deducted from damage to the wall.

Wall material 1' thick 5' thick 10' thick 15' thick
Maximum height 40' 60' 80' 100'
Wood (H 6) 10 gp n/a n/a n/a
Brick (H 8) 20 gp 50 gp n/a n/a
Soft stone (H 12) 30 gp 70 gp 200 gp n/a
Hard stone (H 16) 40 gp 90 gp 260 gp 350 gp

A 1' thick wall is made of solid pieces of material held with mortar (or pegs and ropes for wooden walls); such walls may be at most 40' tall. A 5' thick wall consists of two 1’ thick walls sandwiching 3’ of earth and rubble; such a wall may be at most 60' tall. A 10' thick wall consists of a 4’ thick outer wall and a 2’ thick inner wall sandwiching 4’ of earth and rubble, and may be built up to 80' tall. A 15' thick wall consists of a 6’ thick outer wall and a 2’ thick inner wall sandwiching 7’ of earth and rubble; these walls may be built up to 100' tall. To attain the maximum height, thinner walls can be used on upper stories. For example, an 80 ft. tower must have at least 20’ of 10’ thick walls at the base, but more could be used.

The character will have to pay engineering costs for designing the stronghold, and tall structures are more difficult to design and to build. For each portion of the stronghold (wall, tower, and so on), each 10' of height adds 10% to the costs in both time and money. The GM should feel free to add a multiplier to reflect the difficulties of building in a remote area, obtaining materials, etc. In particular, if materials need to be transported, they require 1 ton of cargo space per 5 gp of wood or stone construction. (The increased weight of stone compensates for its compactness compared to wood.)

A building over 40’ high must have a solid foundation, and if over 60’ high, it must rest on bedrock.

A stronghold requires one worker-day of construction labor for every gp it costs to build. Adding more workers reduces construction time, but the time cannot be reduced below the square root of the time for one worker to build the stronghold. Assume that there are 140 working days per year (seven months of 20 working days each) in temperate climates.

Floors and thatched roofs cost as much and take as long to build as it would take to build the square footage of their bases of 1’ thick wood walls. Wood-shingled roofs cost twice this amount and take twice as long to build, while slate-shingled roofs cost four times as much and take four times as long. (You don't need to calculate the greater surface area of a pitched roof, since the increased height increases construction costs enough to cover this.)

These costs include normal features of construction such as stairs, doors and windows. Interior walls are not included; they are usually 1’ thick. Parapets, which provide cover for defenders atop castle walls and towers, are usually 1' thick and 5' high (so they are half-cost).

Note that guildhouses are almost always built in cities and thus are usually built with 1’ thick exterior walls, but they cost twice as much to build due to the traps and secret passageways that are designed into them. A Magic-User's tower costs three times as much to build, due to the need for ancient books, alchemical equipment, and other supplies for conducting research.

For example, Sir Percy, a 9th-level Fighter, desires to build a 60’ tall square keep (50’ walls with a 10’ peaked slate-shingled roof) that is 50’ square. The keep will have four stories and an attic, and the first story, which will contain the great hall, will be 20’ high. Sir Percy wishes his keep to be strongly built, so he tells his architect to build with hard stone and use 10’ thick walls for the first two stories and 5’ thick walls for the rest. The first and second floors will thus be 30’ square or 900 square feet, and the third and fourth floors will be 40’ square or 1,600 square feet. With a total floor area of 5,000 square feet, Sir Percy’s keep will house him and up to 24 other people (or animals such as horses, which during an attack may be stabled in the great hall!) in acceptable comfort. Its floor plans are shown on the next page.

The first floor has 30 (= 5 [for 50’ length] x 2 [for 20’ height] x 4 walls, minus 8 sections double-counted at the corners and 2 sections for the entrance) 10’ square sections of 10’ thick hard stone walls, which cost 7,800 gp, and 9 10’ square sections of floor, which cost 90 gp, for a total cost of 7,890 gp. The second floor is the same as the first, except that the walls are 10’ high and there is no deduction for an entrance, giving a cost of 4,250 gp. The third and fourth floors each require 18 sections of 5’ thick hard stone walls, costing 1,620 gp, and 16 sections of floor, costing 160 gp, for a total of 1,780 gp per floor. The 50’ square roof costs 4 x 25 x 10 = 1,000 gp, and the 40' square attic floor adds 160 gp. The design calls for a total of 770’ of 1’ thick interior walls and doors, which would cost 30,800 gp if made of hard stone; Sir Percy uses wood, which costs only 7,700 gp. These costs total 24,560 gp, but since the keep is 60’ high, its cost is increased by 60% to 39,296 gp. The keep will require 39,296 worker-days. Sir Percy may employ up to 198 workers to build the keep, in which case it will take 198 working days to build, or a year and three months’ time. Keep in mind what might happen in this time, given that the area is dangerous enough to warrant building a castle.

Dungeons: A stronghold may also have a dungeon excavated under it. A dungeon is an excellent place to store perishable supplies, a good shelter if the castle is overrun, and often incorporates an escape route if all is lost for the castle’s defenders or a secret way out for raids is desired. Magic-Users sometimes encourage monsters to take up residence in their dungeons, as they provide a convenient source of supplies for magical research and help keep away unwanted guests. Use the following figures for skilled workers, such as dwarves or goblins, to create dungeons; double the times for less skilled miners.

Material Time for one worker to

excavate a 5’ cube

Earth 5 days (supports are required)
Soft stone 10 days
Hard stone 20 days

Structural strength and breaches: A section of stronghold wall has as many hit points as its base cost in gp (for example, a section of 10’ thick soft stone wall has 200 hit points). Stone and brick walls only take damage from crushing blows, while wood walls are also affected by fire and chopping attacks. If a given section of wall loses all of its hit points, it is breached, allowing attackers to pass through. If a breach occurs on a lower course of wall, there is a 40% chance that the 10’ section above it will be breached by collapse, and a 20% chance that the section below it will be breached. These secondary breaches have the same chances of affecting the next 10’ section above or below them, and so on until the top or bottom course of wall is reached. If a breach occurs on a right or acute corner (90 degrees or less), the chances of breaches double in each direction.

Attacking a Castle: Siege engines are difficult to aim, but as castles don't dodge around, each successive shot by a given siege engine with a given crew has an increasing chance of hitting. To reflect this, the first attack on a castle's walls is made against Armor Class 20; each subsequent attack by that weapon, fired by that crew, at that same point in the wall, is made against an Armor Class one lower than the previous shot, to a minimum AC of 11.

Attacks on a castle's defenders are at -4 on the attack roll if they are standing on the parapets, and at -10 if they are behind arrow slits. Since characters defending the castle do move around, the odds of hitting them with a siege engine do not improve from shot to shot. There is an additional -2 on the attack roll for missile attacks if the defenders are more than 20' higher than the attackers; this is not specifically due to altitude, but rather because the defenders can use more of the wall for cover. The defenders can take advantage of their height by dropping objects on attackers near the castle's base; these missiles do 2d10 points of damage, but they have a -2 attack penalty if dropped from a height of 30' or more.

Siege engines can damage several adjacent characters; roll damage separately for each character in the 10' square hit by the missile. Of course, the attack roll must be high enough to damage each one; a roll of 19 against characters having Armor Classes of 18 and 20 would hit the former but not the latter.

A castle may also be attacked by mining. This method of attack involves tunneling under the castle wall, then setting fire to the supports of the tunnel to cause the wall to collapse. It is also slow, and if the castle has a moat, the tunnel must avoid it, which requires that it be dug deeper, requiring twice the time. A mine is dug like a dungeon, and once its supports are fired, the wall above is breached; if the mine is only 5’ wide, there is only a 50% chance of causing a breach.

Finally, a screw may be used to attack a stronghold. This device, which costs 200 gp, is used to bore through castle walls. A crew of at least eight is required to operate it. It is only used at the base of a wall, and it is usually operated under a sow, or portable roof, as it is slow. (A sow typically costs about 100 gp.) The device does 1d8 points of damage per turn, but it ignores hardness. A breach caused by a screw is small, so it has only half the usual chance of spreading to the next course of wall, unless widened by miners.

OPEN GAME LICENSE

INTRODUCTION

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